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Marwan I
Marwān ibn Al-Hakam ibn Abi al-'As ibn Umayya ibn Abd Shams[note 1] (Arabic: مروان بن الحكم بن أبي العاص بن أمية‎), commonly known as Marwan I
Marwan I
(ca. 623–626 — April/May 685) was the fourth caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate, ruling for less than a year in 684–685, and founder of its Marwanid ruling house, which remained in power until 750. Marwan had known the Islamic prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
and is thus considered a sahaba (companion). He served as the secretary and right-hand man of his kinsman Caliph Uthman
Uthman
(r. 644–656) and participated in the defense of his house during a rebel siege. Uthman
Uthman
was, nonetheless, assassinated by the rebels, prompting Marwan to kill Talha ibn Ubayd Allah, whom he held culpable, during the Battle of the Camel
Battle of the Camel
in 656
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Battle Of Marj Rahit (684)
A battle is a combat in warfare between two or more armed forces, or combatants. A war sometimes consists of many battles. Battles generally are well defined in duration, area, and force commitment.[1] A battle with only limited engagement between the forces and without decisive results is sometimes called a skirmish. Wars and military campaigns are guided by strategy, whereas battles take place on a level of planning and execution known as operational mobility.[2] German strategist Carl von Clausewitz
Carl von Clausewitz
stated that "the employment of battles ..
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Bilad Al-Sham
Bilad al-Sham
Bilad al-Sham
(Arabic: بِـلَاد الـشَّـام‎ Bilād a'š-Šām) was a Rashidun, Umayyad and later Abbasid Caliphate province in what is now the region of Syria. It incorporated former Byzantine
Byzantine
territories of the Diocese of the East, organized soon after the Muslim conquest of Syria
Muslim conquest of Syria
in the mid-7th century, which was completed at the decisive Battle of Yarmouk
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Jund Filastin
Jund
Jund
Filasṭīn (Arabic: جُـنْـد فِـلَـسْـطِـيْـن‎, "military district of Palestine") was one of the military districts of the Ummayad
Ummayad
and Abbasid
Abbasid
Caliphate province of Bilad al-Sham
Bilad al-Sham
(Syria), organized soon after the Muslim conquest of the Levant
Levant
in the 630s
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Hejaz
The Hejaz
Hejaz
(Arabic: اَلْـحِـجَـاز‎, Al-Ḥijāz, literally "the Barrier"), is a region in the west of present-day Saudi Arabia. The region is so called as it separates the land of the Najd in the east from the land of Tihamah
Tihamah
in the west
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Upper Mesopotamia
Upper Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
is the name used for the uplands and great outwash plain of northwestern Iraq, northeastern Syria
Syria
and southeastern Turkey, in the northern Middle East.[1] After the Arab
Arab
Islamic conquest of the mid-7th century AD the region has been known by the traditional Arabic
Arabic
name of al-Jazira (Arabic: الجزيرة‎ "the island"), also transliterated Djazirah, Djezirah, Jazirah & the Syriac (Aramaic) variant Gazerṯo or Gozarto (ܓܙܪܬܐ)
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Clifford Edmund Bosworth
Clifford
Clifford
may refer to: Clifford
Clifford
(name), an English given name and surname, includes a list of people with that namePlaces[edit]EnglandClifford, Devon, a location Clifford, Herefordshire
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Medina
Medina
Medina
(/məˈdiːnə/; Arabic: المدينة المنورة‎, al-Madīnah al-Munawwarah, "the radiant city"; or المدينة, al-Madīnah (Hejazi pronunciation: [almaˈdiːna]), "the city"), also transliterated as Madīnah, is a city in the Hejaz
Hejaz
region of the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
and administrative headquarters of the Al-Madinah Region of Saudi Arabia. At the city's heart is al-Masjid an-Nabawi ("the Prophet's Mosque"), which is the burial place of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and is the second-holiest city in Islam
Islam
after Mecca. Medina
Medina
was Muhammad's destination of his Hijrah (migration) from Mecca, and became the capital of a rapidly increasing Muslim
Muslim
Empire, under Muhammad's leadership
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Quraysh
The Quraysh
Quraysh
(Arabic: قريش‎) were a mercantile Arab
Arab
tribe that historically inhabited and controlled Mecca
Mecca
and its Ka'aba. The Islamic prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
was born into the Banu Hashim
Banu Hashim
clan of the Quraysh
Quraysh
tribe. The Quraysh
Quraysh
staunchly opposed Muhammad
Muhammad
until converting to Islam
Islam
en masse in 630 CE
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Qur'an
The Quran
Quran
(/kɔːrˈɑːn/[a] kor-AHN; Arabic: القرآن‎ al-Qurʾān,[b] literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran[c]) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God
God
(Allah).[1] It is wide
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Siege Of Uthman
A siege is a military blockade of a city, or fortress, with the intent of conquering by attrition, or a well-prepared assault. This derives from sedere, Latin
Latin
for "to sit".[1] Siege
Siege
warfare is a form of constant, low-intensity conflict characterized by one party holding a strong, static, defensive position. Consequently, an opportunity for negotiation between combatants is not uncommon, as proximity and fluctuating advantage can encourage diplomacy. A siege occurs when an attacker encounters a city or fortress that cannot be easily taken by a quick assault, and which refuses to surrender. Sieges involve surrounding the target to block the provision of supplies and the reinforcement or escape of troops (a tactic known as "investment"[2])
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Sahaba
The term aṣ-ṣaḥābah (Arabic: الصحابة‎ meaning "the companions", from the verb صَحِبَ meaning "accompany", "keep company with", "associate with") refers to the companions, disciples, scribes and family of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.[1][2] This form is definite plural; the indefinite singular is masculine sahabi (ṣaḥābī), feminine sahabia (ṣaḥābīyat). Later scholars accepted their testimony of the words and deeds of Muhammad, the occasions on which the Quran
Quran
was revealed and various important matters of Islamic history and practice
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Muhammad
Muhammad[n 1] (Arabic: محمد‎; pronounced [muħammad];[n 2] French: Mahomet /məˈhɒmɪt/; Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)[1] was the founder of Islam.[2][3] According to Islamic doctrine, he was a prophet and God's messenger, sent to present and confirm the monotheistic teachings preached previously by Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other prophets.[3][4][5][6] He is viewed as the final prophet of God
God
in all the main branches of Islam, though some modern denominations diverge from this belief.[n 3]
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Islam
Islam
Islam
(/ˈɪslɑːm/)[note 1] is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God
God
(Allah)[1] and that Muhammad
Muhammad
is the messenger of God.[2][3] It is the world's second-largest religion[4] and the fastest-growing major religion in the world,[5][6][7] with over 1.8 billion followers or 24.1% of the global population,[8] known as Muslims.[9] Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries.[4] Islam
Islam
teaches that God
God
is merciful, all-powerful, unique[10] and has guided mankind through prophets, revealed scriptures and natural signs.[3][11] The primary scriptures of Islam
Islam
are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, and the teachings and normative example (called the sunnah, composed of accounts called hadith) of Muhammad
Muhammad
(c
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Arabic Language
Arabic
Arabic
(Arabic: العَرَبِيَّة‎) al-ʻarabiyyah [ʔalʕaraˈbijːah] ( listen) or (Arabic: عَرَبِيّ‎) ʻarabī [ˈʕarabiː] ( listen) or [ʕaraˈbij]) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world.[4] It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the east to the Anti- Lebanon
Lebanon
mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic
Arabic
is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form (Modern Standard Arabic) [5]. The modern written language (Modern Standard Arabic) is derived from Classical Arabic
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