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Martin Skowroneck
(Franz Hermann) Martin Skowroneck
Martin Skowroneck
(21 December 1926, in Berlin – 14 May 2014, in Bremen)[1] was a German harpsichord builder, one of the pioneers of the modern movement of harpsichord construction on historical principles.Contents1 Life and career 2 Instruments 3 Writings 4 See also 5 Notes 6 ReferencesLife and career[edit] He completed his secondary education in 1947,[2] then embarked on musical training at the Musikschule in Bremen, from which he received his diploma in 1950 as a teacher of flute and recorder
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Ruckers
The Ruckers
Ruckers
family (variants: Ruckaert, Ruckaerts, Rucqueer, Rueckers, Ruekaerts, Ruijkers, Rukkers, Rycardt) were harpsichord and virginal makers from the Southern Netherlands
Southern Netherlands
based in Antwerp
Antwerp
in the 16th and 17th century. Their influence stretched well into the 18th century, and to the harpsichord revival of the 20th. The Ruckers
Ruckers
family contributed immeasurably to the harpsichord's technical development, pioneering the addition of a second manual; the quality of their instruments is such that the name of Ruckers
Ruckers
is as important to early keyboard instruments as that of Stradivarius
Stradivarius
is to the violin family
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Eight Foot Pitch
An organ pipe, or a harpsichord string, designated as eight-foot pitch is sounded at standard, ordinary pitch.[1] For example, the A above middle C in eight-foot pitch would be sounded at 440 Hz (or at some similar value, depending on how concert pitch was set at the time and place the organ or harpsichord was made).Contents1 Similar terms 2 Choice of length 3 See also 4 ReferencesSimilar terms[edit] Eight-foot pitch may be contrasted with four-foot pitch (one octave above the standard), two-foot pitch (two octaves above the standard), and sixteen-foot pitch (one octave below the standard).[2] The latter three pitches were often sounded (by extra pipes or strings) along with an eight-foot pitch pipe or string, as a way of enriching the tonal quality
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Bremen
The City Municipality of Bremen
Bremen
(German: Stadtgemeinde Bremen, IPA: [ˈbʁeːmən] ( listen)) is a Hanseatic city in northwestern Germany, which belongs to the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen
Bremen
(also called just "Bremen" for short), a federal state of Germany. As a commercial and industrial city with a major port on the River Weser, Bremen
Bremen
is part of the Bremen/ Oldenburg
Oldenburg
Metropolitan Region, with 2.4 million people. Bremen
Bremen
is the second most populous city in Northern Germany
Germany
and eleventh in Germany.[3] Bremen
Bremen
is a major cultural and economic hub in the northern regions of Germany
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Recorder (musical Instrument)
The recorder is a woodwind musical instrument in the group known as internal duct flutes—flutes with a whistle mouthpiece. A recorder can be distinguished from other duct flutes by the presence of thumb-hole for the upper hand and seven finger-holes: three for the upper hand and four for the lower. It is the most prominent duct flute in the western classical tradition.[1] Recorders are made in different sizes with names and compasses roughly corresponding to different vocal ranges. The sizes most commonly in use today are the soprano (aka "descant", lowest note C5), alto (aka "treble", lowest note F4), tenor (lowest note C4) and bass (lowest note F3). Recorders are traditionally constructed from wood and ivory, while most recorders made in recent years are constructed from molded plastic. The recorders' internal and external proportions vary, but the bore is generally reverse conical (i.e
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Clavichord
The clavichord is a European stringed keyboard instrument that was used largely in the late Medieval, through the Renaissance, Baroque and Classical eras. Historically, it was mostly used as a practice instrument and as an aid to composition, not being loud enough for larger performances. The clavichord produces sound by striking brass or iron strings with small metal blades called tangents. Vibrations are transmitted through the bridge(s) to the soundboard.Contents1 Name 2 History and use2.1 Modern music3 Structure and action 4 Fretting 5 Pedal clavichord 6 Repertoire 7 References 8 External linksName[edit] The name is derived from the Latin
Latin
word clavis, meaning "key" (associated with more common clavus, meaning "nail, rod, etc.") and chorda (from Greek χορδή) meaning "string, especially of a musical instrument". An analogous name is used in other European languages (It. clavicordio, clavicordo; Fr. clavicorde; Germ. Klavichord; Lat
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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Library Of Congress Control Number
The Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Control Number (LCCN) is a serially based system of numbering cataloging records in the Library of Congress
Library of Congress
in the United States. It has nothing to do with the contents of any book, and should not be confused with Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Classification.Contents1 History 2 Format 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit] The LCCN numbering system has been in use since 1898, at which time the acronym LCCN originally stood for Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Card Number. It has also been called the Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Catalog Card Number, among other names
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Edward Kottick
Edward (Leon) Kottick[1] is a leading expert on the harpsichord, the author of three widely read books on the subject. He is a retired musicology professor at the University of Iowa
University of Iowa
in Iowa City and is an experienced builder of harpsichords.Contents1 Biography 2 Harpsichord
Harpsichord
scholarship 3 Honors 4 Bibliography 5 External links 6 NotesBiography[edit] Kottick gives the outline facts of his life thus:I was born in Jersey City, NJ, in 1930, and was brought up in Brooklyn, NY, where I studied the trombone.[2] I later became a music major at NYU. Following two years in the army, where I conducted a band, I went to New Orleans, LA, to play in the symphony; but after a few years of that I decided to go to graduate school at Tulane University, where I was introduced to musicology and renaissance music
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Gustav Leonhardt
Gustav Leonhardt
Gustav Leonhardt
(30 May 1928  – 16 January 2012)[1] was a Dutch keyboard player, conductor, musicologist, teacher and editor. He was a leading figure in the movement to perform music on period instruments. Leonhardt professionally played many instruments, including the harpsichord, pipe organ, claviorganum (a combination of harpsichord and organ), clavichord and fortepiano. He also conducted orchestras and choruses.Contents1 Biography 2 Career 3 Influence and awards 4 Bibliography 5 Further reading 6 References 7 External linksBiography[edit] Gustav Leonhardt
Gustav Leonhardt
was born in 's-Graveland, North Holland
North Holland
and studied organ and harpsichord from 1947 to 1950 with Eduard Müller at the Schola Cantorum Basiliensis
Schola Cantorum Basiliensis
in Basel. In 1950, he made his debut as a harpsichordist in Vienna, where he studied musicology
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Ketil Haugsand
Ketil Are Haugsand (born 13 June 1947, Oslo, Norway) is a Norwegian harpsichordist and conductor.[1]Contents1 Biography 2 Discography 3 References 4 External linksBiography[edit] Haugsand started his musical studies in Trondheim
Trondheim
and Oslo, and later studied in Prague
Prague
and Haarlem. In 1973, he earned his solo diploma. In 1975, he was awarded the Prix d'Excellence at the Amsterdam conservatory, where he studied under Gustav Leonhardt.[2] Haugsand is now a world-renowned harpsichordist and has toured extensively in Europe, Israel
Israel
and the United States. Major recordings include Johann Sebastian Bach's Goldberg Variations
Goldberg Variations
and several recordings with the Norwegian Baroque Orchestra. Professor of music at the Norwegian Academy of Music
Norwegian Academy of Music
from 1974-95
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Grove Music Online
The New Grove Dictionary of Music
Music
and Musicians is an encyclopedic dictionary of music and musicians. Along with the German-language Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart, it is one of the largest reference works on western music. Originally published under the title A Dictionary of Music
Music
and Musicians, and later as Grove's Dictionary of Music
Music
and Musicians, it has gone through several editions since the 19th century and is widely used
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Plectrum
A plectrum is a small flat tool used to pluck or strum a stringed instrument. For hand-held instruments such as guitars and mandolins, the plectrum is often called a pick, and is a separate tool held in the player's hand. In harpsichords, the plectra are attached to the jack mechanism.Contents1 Plectra wielded by hand1.1 Guitars and similar instruments 1.2 Non-Western instruments 1.3 Gallery: plectra from around the world2 Plectra in harpsichords2.1 Voicing harpsichord plectra3 Etymology and usage 4 See also 5 Notes 6 External links 7 ReferencesPlectra wielded by hand[edit] Guitars and similar instruments[edit] Main article: Guitar
Guitar
pick A plectrum (pick) for electric guitars, acoustic guitars, bass guitars and mandolins is typically a thin piece of plastic or other material shaped like a pointed teardrop or triangle. The size, shape and width may vary considerably
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Fortepiano
A fortepiano [ˌfɔrteˈpjaːno] is an early piano. In principle, the word "fortepiano" can designate any piano dating from the invention of the instrument by Bartolomeo Cristofori
Bartolomeo Cristofori
around 1700 up to the early 19th century. Most typically, however, it is used to refer to the late-18th to early-19th century instruments for which Haydn, Mozart, and the younger Beethoven wrote their piano music. Starting in Beethoven's time, the fortepiano began a period of steady evolution, culminating in the late 19th century with the modern grand. The earlier fortepiano became obsolete and was absent from the musical scene for many decades. In the 20th century the fortepiano was revived, following the rise of interest in historically informed performance
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Harpsichord
A harpsichord is a musical instrument played by means of a keyboard, a row of levers which the player presses. When the player presses one or more keys, a mechanism that plucks one or more strings with a small quill is triggered. "Harpsichord" designates the whole family of similar plucked-keyboard instruments, including the smaller virginals, muselar, and spinet. The harpsichord was widely used in Renaissance and Baroque music. During the late 18th century, it gradually disappeared from the musical scene, with the rise of the piano
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Dulcken
The Dulcken family were Flemish harpsichord makers of German origin. Joannes Daniel Dulcken (21 April 1706 – 11 April 1757) was born in Wingeshausen, the son of Georg Ludwig Dulcken (died Wingeshausen, before 1752). In 1736 he was in Maastricht, but by 1738 he had moved with his wife Susanna Maria Knopffell and their son to Antwerp
Antwerp
where they became members of the Reformed church. He became an alderman in 1744, and lived in Hopland. He travelled to England in 1750 to sell two of his harpsichords. His will left all his harpsichord-making material to his son Joannes Dulcken; he died in Antwerp. He left a good reputation behind: Charles Burney
Charles Burney
claimed that, after the Ruckers family, 'the harpsichord-maker of the greatest eminence … was J
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