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Martial Law In Pakistan
Military coups in Pakistan
Pakistan
began in 1958 and there have been three successful attempts. There have also been numerous unsuccessful attempts since 1951. Since its creation in 1947, Pakistan
Pakistan
has spent several decades under military rule (1958 – 1971, 1977 – 1988, 1999 – 2008)Contents1 1958 coup 2 1977 coup (Operation Fair Play) 3 1999 coup 4 Indirect intervention 5 Unsuccessful coup attempts 6 References1958 coup[edit] Main article: 1958 Pakistani coup d'état In 1958, the first Pakistani President
Pakistani President
Major General Iskander Mirza dismissed the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan
Pakistan
and the government of Prime Minister Feroz Khan Noon, appointing army commander-in-chief Gen. Ayub Khan as the Chief martial law administrator
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History Of Pakistan
The history of Pakistan
Pakistan
(Urdu: تاریخ پاکستان‬‎) encompasses the history of the region constituting modern-day Pakistan. For over three millennia, the region has witnessed human activity[1] and one of the world's major civilizations,[2][3][4][5] the Indus Valley
Indus Valley
Civilisation
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Kabul Shahi
The Kabul
Kabul
Shahi
Shahi
dynasties[2][3] also called Shahiya[4][5] ruled the
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Sasanian Empire
Temporarily controlled during the Byzantine– Sasanian
Sasanian
War of 602–628:  Abkhazia[12]  Russia (  Dagestan
Dagestan
and  Chechnya)  Turkey  Lebanon  Israel   Palestinian National Authority
Palestinian National Authority
( West Bank
West Bank
and Gaza strip)[13]  Jordan  EgyptPart of a series on theHistory of IranMythological historyPishdadian dynasty Kayanian dynastyAncient periodBCPrehistory of Iran Ancient Times–4000Kura–Araxes culture 3400–2000Proto-Elamite 3200–2700Jiroft culture c. 3100 – c. 2200Elam 2700–539 Akkadian
Akkadian
Empire 2400–2150Kassites c. 1500 – c
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Indo-Sasanians
The Kushano- Sassanids
Sassanids
(also called Kushanshas
Kushanshas
or Indo-Sassanians) were a branch of the Sassanid
Sassanid
Persians who established their rule in Bactria
Bactria
and in northwestern Pakistan
Pakistan
during the 3rd and 4th centuries at the expense of the declining Kushans. They captured the provinces of Sogdiana, Bactria
Bactria
and Gandhara
Gandhara
from the Kushans, following the fall of the Kushan
Kushan
dynasty in 225 CE.[2] The Sasanians established governors for the Sasanian Empire, who minted their own coinage and took the title of Kushanshas, i.e
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Kushano-Sasanian Kingdom
The Kushano- Sassanids
Sassanids
(also called Kushanshas
Kushanshas
or Indo-Sassanians) were a branch of the Sassanid
Sassanid
Persians who established their rule in Bactria
Bactria
and in northwestern Pakistan
Pakistan
during the 3rd and 4th centuries at the expense of the declining Kushans. They captured the provinces of Sogdiana, Bactria
Bactria
and Gandhara
Gandhara
from the Kushans, following the fall of the Kushan
Kushan
dynasty in 225 CE.[2] The Sasanians established governors for the Sasanian Empire, who minted their own coinage and took the title of Kushanshas, i.e
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Gupta Empire
The Gupta Empire
Empire
was an ancient Indian empire, which existed at its zenith from approximately 240 to 605 CE and covered much of the Indian subcontinent.[1] This period is called the Golden Age
Golden Age
of India.[2][note 1] The ruling dynasty of the empire was founded by Sri Gupta; the most notable rulers of the dynasty were Chandragupta I, Samudragupta, and Chandragupta II. The 5th-century CE Sanskrit
Sanskrit
poet Kalidasa
Kalidasa
credits the Guptas with having conquered about twenty-one kingdoms, both in and outside India, including the kingdoms of Parasikas, the Hunas, the Kambojas, tribes located in the west and east Oxus
Oxus
valleys, the Kinnaras, Kiratas, and others.[4][non-primary source needed] The high points of this period are the great cultural developments which took place during the reign of Chandragupta II
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Rai Dynasty
The Rai Dynasty (c. 524–632 CE)[2] was at power during the Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, which originated in the region of Sindh, in modern Pakistan.[1] The dynasty at its height of power ruled much of the Northwestern regions of the Indian subcontinent. The influence of the Rais extended from Kashmir
Kashmir
in the east, Makran
Makran
and Debal
Debal
port (modern Karachi) in the west, Surat
Surat
port in the south, and the Kandahar, Sulaiman, Ferdan and Kikanan hills in the north.[1] It ruled an area of over 600,000 square miles (1,553,993 km2), and the dynasty reigned a period of 143 years.[1] The Battle of Rasil
Battle of Rasil
in 644 played a crucial role in their decline
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Hephthalite Empire
The Hephthalites (or Ephthalites) were a people of Central Asia who were militarily important circa 450–560. They were based in Bactria and expanded east to the Tarim Basin, west to Sogdia
Sogdia
and south through Afghanistan
Afghanistan
to northern India. They were a tribal confederation and included both nomadic and settled urban communities. They were part of the four major "Hunic" states known collectively as Xionites
Xionites
or "Hunas", being preceded by the Kidarites, and succeeded by the Alchon Huns
Huns
and lastly the Nezak Huns. The Sveta Huna or White Huns
Huns
who invaded northern India
India
are probably the Hephthalites, but the exact relation is not clear. The stronghold of the Hephthalites was Tokharistan on the northern slopes of the Hindu Kush, in what is present-day northeastern Afghanistan
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Brahman Dynasty Of Sindh
The Brahman
Brahman
dynasty (c. 632 – c. 724[1]) was a power on the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
which originated in the region of Sindh (present-day Pakistan). Most of the information about its existence comes from the Chach Nama, a historical account of the Chach-Brahman dynasty. The Brahman
Brahman
dynasty were successors of the Rai dynasty. History[edit] The dynasty was founded by a Brahman
Brahman
named Chach of Alor
Chach of Alor
in c. 632 CE after he married the widow of Rai Sahasi II, the last ruler of the Rai dynasty. His claim was further secured by the killing of Rai Sahasi II's brother.[1] The rule of Sindh
Sindh
by a Hindu dynasty raised ire in the Umayyad Caliphate
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Caliphate
A caliphate (Arabic: خِلافة‎ khilāfah) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (/ˈkælɪf, ˈkeɪ-/, Arabic: خَليفة‎ khalīfah,  pronunciation (help·info)), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
and a leader of the entire Muslim
Muslim
community.[1] Historically, the caliphates were polities based in Islam
Islam
which developed into multi-ethnic trans-national empires.[2] During the medieval period, three major caliphates succeeded each other: the Rashidun Caliphate
Rashidun Caliphate
(632–661), the Umayyad Caliphate
Umayyad Caliphate
(661–750) and the Abbasid Caliphate (750–1258)
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Pala Empire
The Pala Empire
Pala Empire
was an imperial power during the Late Classical period on the Indian subcontinent,[3] which originated in the region of Bengal. It is named after its ruling dynasty, whose rulers bore names ending with the suffix of Pala ("protector" in Sanskrit). They were followers of the Mahayana
Mahayana
and Tantric schools of Buddhism. The empire was founded with the election of Gopala as the emperor of Gauda in 750 CE.[4] The Pala stronghold was located in Bengal
Bengal
and Bihar, which included the major cities of Vikrampura, Pataliputra, Gauda, Monghyr, Somapura, Ramvati (Varendra), Tamralipta
Tamralipta
and Jaggadala. The Palas were astute diplomats and military conquerors. Their army was noted for its vast war elephant corps. Their navy performed both mercantile and defensive roles in the Bay of Bengal
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Habbari Dynasty
The Habbari dynasty ruled the Abbasid
Abbasid
province of Greater Sindh
Sindh
from 841 to 1024. The region became semi-independent under the Arab ruler Aziz al-Habbari in 841 CE, though nominally remaining part of the Caliphate.[1][2][3] The Habbaris, who were based in the city of Mansura, ruled the regions of Sindh, Makran, Turan, Khuzdar and Multan. The Umayyad Caliph made Aziz governor of Sindh
Sindh
and he was succeeded by his sons Umar al-Habbari I and Abdullah al-Habbari in succession while his grandson Umar al-Habbari II was ruling when the famous Arab historian Al-Masudi
Al-Masudi
visited Sindh. The Habbaris ruled Sindh
Sindh
until 1010 when the Soomra Khafif took over Sidh
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Samanid Empire
The Samanid Empire
Samanid Empire
(Persian: سامانیان‎, Sāmāniyān), also known as the Samanid dynasty, Samanid Emirate, or simply Samanids, was a Sunni[7] Iranian empire,[8] ruling from 819 to 999. The empire was mostly centered in Khorasan and Transoxiana
Transoxiana
during its existence, but at its greatest extent, the empire encompassed all of today's Afghanistan, and large parts of Iran, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and Pakistan.[9] The Samanid state was founded by four brothers; Nuh, Ahmad, Yahya, and Ilyas—each of them ruled their own territory under Abbasid suzerainty. In 892, Isma'il ibn Ahmad
Isma'il ibn Ahmad
(892–907) united the Samanid state under one ruler, thus effectively putting an end to the feudal system used by the Samanids
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Indo-Parthian Kingdom
The Indo-Parthian
Indo-Parthian
Kingdom was ruled by the Gondopharid dynasty and other rulers who were a group of ancient kings from Central Asia
Central Asia
that ruled parts of present-day Afghanistan, Pakistan
Pakistan
and northwestern India, during or slightly before the 1st century AD
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Ghaznavids
in Anatolia Artuqid dynasty Saltuqid dynasty in Azerbaijan Ahmadili dynasty Ildenizid dynasty in Egypt Tulunid dynasty Ikhshidid dynasty in Fars Salghurid dynasty in The Levant Burid dynasty Zengid dynastyThis box:view talk editThe Ghaznavid dynasty (Persian: غزنویان‎ ġaznaviyān) was a Persianate[10] Muslim
Muslim
dynasty of Turkic mamluk origin,[11] at their greatest extent ruling large parts of Iran, Afghanistan, much of
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