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Marius Tscherning
Marius Hans Erik Tscherning (11 December 1854, in Østrup near Odense – 1 September 1939) was a Danish ophthalmologist. He studied ophthalmology under Edmund Hansen Grut (1831-1907) in Copenhagen, later becoming an adjunct director at the ophthalmological laboratory at the Sorbonne in Paris. Tscherning spent 25 years at the Sorbonne, where he worked closely with Louis Émile Javal
Louis Émile Javal
(1839-1907). In 1910 he returned to Denmark
Denmark
as a professor at the University of Copenhagen
Copenhagen
and head of the ophthalmic department at the Rigshospitalet.[1] Tscherning is remembered for contributions made in optical physiology. He conducted research of entoptic phenomenon, Purkinje images, the etiology of myopia, and Listing's law of ocular movement
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Odense
Odense
Odense
(Danish: [ˈoðˀn̩sə] ( listen)) is the third-largest city in Denmark. It has a population of 176,683 as of January 2017,[1] and is the main city of the island of Funen. By road, Odense
Odense
is located 45 kilometres (28 mi) north of Svendborg, 144 kilometres (89 mi) to the south of Aarhus
Aarhus
and 167 kilometres (104 mi) to the southwest of Copenhagen. The city is the seat of Odense Municipality
Odense Municipality
and was the seat of Odense County
Odense County
until 1970, and Funen
Funen
County from 1970 until 1 January 2007, when Funen
Funen
County became part of the Region of Southern Denmark. Odense
Odense
has close associations with Hans Christian Andersen
Hans Christian Andersen
who is remembered above all for his fairy tales
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Lens (anatomy)
The lens is a transparent, biconvex structure in the eye that, along with the cornea, helps to refract light to be focused on the retina. The lens, by changing shape, functions to change the focal distance of the eye so that it can focus on objects at various distances, thus allowing a sharp real image of the object of interest to be formed on the retina. This adjustment of the lens is known as accommodation (see also below). Accommodation is similar to the focusing of a photographic camera via movement of its lenses. The lens is more flat on its anterior side than on its posterior side. The lens is also known as the aquula (Latin, a little stream, dim. of aqua, water) or crystalline lens
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Système Universitaire De Documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify, track and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers. It is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education [fr] (ABES).External links[edit] Official website This article relating to library science or information science is a stub
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SNAC
Social Networks and Archival Context (SNAC) is an online project for discovering, locating, and using distributed historical records in regard to individual people, families, and organizations.[1]Contents1 History 2 Data Gathering 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit] SNAC was established in 2010, with funding from the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA),[2] California Digital Library (CDL),
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique.[a][b] Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each separate edition and variation (except reprintings) of a publication. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book will each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is ten digits long if assigned before 2007, and thirteen digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-specific and varies between countries, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book
Book
Numbering (SBN) created in 1966
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Lens Power
Optical power (also referred to as dioptric power, refractive power, focusing power, or convergence power) is the degree to which a lens, mirror, or other optical system converges or diverges light. It is equal to the reciprocal of the focal length of the device: P = 1/f.[1] High optical power corresponds to short focal length. The SI unit for optical power is the inverse metre (m−1), which is commonly called the dioptre. Converging lenses have positive optical power, while diverging lenses have negative power. When a lens is immersed in a refractive medium, its optical power and focal length change. For two or more thin lenses close together, the optical power of the combined lenses is approximately equal to the sum of the optical powers of each lens: P = P1 + P2. Similarly, the optical power of a single lens is roughly equal to the sum of the powers of each surface
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Corrective Lens
A corrective lens is a lens typically worn in front of the eye to improve vision. The most common use is to treat refractive errors: myopia, hypermetropia, astigmatism, and presbyopia. Glasses
Glasses
or "spectacles" are worn on the face a short distance in front of the eye
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Thomas Young (scientist)
Thomas Young (13 June 1773 – 10 May 1829) was an English polymath and physician. Young made notable scientific contributions to the fields of vision, light, solid mechanics, energy, physiology, language, musical harmony, and Egyptology. He "made a number of original and insightful innovations"[1] in the decipherment of Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
(specifically the Rosetta Stone) before Jean-François Champollion
Jean-François Champollion
eventually expanded on his work. He was mentioned by, among others, William Herschel, Hermann von Helmholtz, James Clerk Maxwell, and Albert Einstein
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Pupillary Dilation
Pupillary response
Pupillary response
is a physiological response that varies the size of the pupil, via the optic and oculomotor cranial nerve. A constriction response (miosis),[1] is the narrowing of the pupil, which may be caused by scleral buckles or drugs such as opiates/opioids or anti hypertension medications. Constriction of the pupil occurs when the circular muscle, controlled by the parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS), contracts. A dilation response (mydriasis), is the widening of the pupil and may be caused by anticholinergic agents or drugs such as MDMA, cocaine, amphetamines and some hallucinogenics
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Ciliary Muscle
short ciliary From oculomotor nerve Through ciliary ganglion Sympathetic postganglionic fibers from sup. cervical ganglia.Actions 1) accommodation, 2) regulation of trabecular meshwork pore sizesIdentifiersLatin musculus ciliarisTA A15.2.03.014FMA 49151Anatomical terms of muscle [edit on Wikidata]The ciliary muscle /ˈsɪli.ɛəri/ is a ring of smooth muscle[2][3] in the eye's middle layer (vascular layer) that controls accommodation for viewing objects at varying distances and regulates the flow of aqueous humour into Schlemm's canal
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Zonule Of Zinn
The zonule of Zinn (/ˈtsɪn/) (Zinn's membrane, ciliary zonule) (after Johann Gottfried Zinn) is a ring of fibrous strands forming a zonule (little band) that connects the ciliary body with the crystalline lens of the eye. These fibers are sometimes collectively referred to as the suspensory ligaments of the lens, as they act like suspensory ligaments.Contents1 Development 2 Anatomy 3 Clinical appearance 4 Additional images 5 References 6 External linksDevelopment[edit] The ciliary epithelial cells of the eye probably synthesize portions of the zonules.[1] Anatomy[edit] The zonule of Zinn is split into two layers: a thin layer, which lines the hyaloid fossa, and a thicker layer, which is a collection of zonular fibers
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Hermann Von Helmholtz
Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (August 31, 1821 – September 8, 1894) was a German physician and physicist who made significant contributions in several scientific fields
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Accommodation Reflex
The accommodation reflex (or accommodation-convergence reflex) is a reflex action of the eye, in response to focusing on a near object, then looking at a distant object (and vice versa), comprising coordinated changes in vergence, lens shape and pupil size (accommodation). It is dependent on cranial nerve II (afferent limb of reflex), superior centers (interneuron) and cranial nerve III (efferent limb of reflex). The change in the shape of the lens is controlled by the ciliary muscles inside the eye
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Accommodation (eye)
Accommodation is the process by which the vertebrate eye changes optical power to maintain a clear image or focus on an object as its distance varies. In this, distances vary for individuals from the far point—the maximum distance from the eye for which a clear image of an object can be seen, to the near point—the minimum distance for a clear image. Accommodation acts like a reflex, but can also be consciously controlled. Mammals, birds and reptiles vary the optical power by changing the form of the elastic lens using the ciliary body (in humans up to 15 dioptres). Fish and amphibians vary the power by changing the distance between a rigid lens and the retina with muscles.[1]Duane's classical curves showing the amplitude or width of accommodation as changing with age
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