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Marinid
The Marinid dynasty
Marinid dynasty
(Berber: Imrinen, Arabic: المرينيون‎ Marīniyūn) or Banu abd al-Haqq was a Sunni Muslim[3] dynasty of Zenata
Zenata
Berber descent that ruled Morocco
Morocco
from the 13th to the 15th century.[1][4] In 1244, the Marinid rulers overthrew the Almohad Caliphate, which controlled Morocco.[5] The Marinid dynasty
Marinid dynasty
briefly held sway over all the Maghreb
Maghreb
in the mid-14th century
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Berber Languages
The Berber languages, also known as Berber or the Amazigh languages[2] (Berber name: Tamaziɣt, Tamazight; Neo-Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ, Tuareg
Tuareg
Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵜ, ⵝⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵝ, pronounced [tæmæˈzɪɣt], [θæmæˈzɪɣθ]), are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family. They comprise a group of closely related dialects spoken by the Berbers, who are indigenous to North Africa.[3] The languages were traditionally written with the ancient Libyco-Berber script, which now exists in the form of Tifinagh.[4] Berber is spoken by large populations of Morocco, Algeria
Algeria
and Libya, by smaller populations of Tunisia, northern Mali, western and northern Niger, northern Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso
and Mauritania
Mauritania
and in the Siwa Oasis
Siwa Oasis
of Egypt
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Acheulean
Acheulean
Acheulean
(/əˈʃuːliən/; also Acheulian and Mode II), from the French acheuléen, is an archaeological industry of stone tool manufacture characterized by distinctive oval and pear-shaped "hand-axes" associated with early humans. Acheulean
Acheulean
tools were produced during the Lower Palaeolithic
Lower Palaeolithic
era across Africa and much of West Asia, South Asia, and Europe, and are typically found with Homo erectus remains. It is thought that Acheulean
Acheulean
technologies first developed in Africa out of the more primitive Oldowan
Oldowan
technology as long as 1.76 million years ago, by Homo
Homo
habilis
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Spanish Protectorate Of Morocco
The Spanish protectorate in Morocco[a] was established on 27 November 1912 by a treaty between France
France
and Spain[1] that converted the Spanish sphere of influence in Morocco
Morocco
into a formal protectorate. The Spanish protectorate consisted of a northern strip on the Mediterranean and the Strait of Gibraltar, and a southern part of the protectorate[2] around Cape Juby, bordering the Spanish Sahara
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Agadir Crisis
Treaty of Fez:France establishes a full protectorate over MoroccoBelligerents German Empire United Kingdom  French Third Republic Kingdom of Spainv t eScramble for AfricaBoer War (1880) Tunisia (1881) Sudan (1881) Egypt (1882) Wassoulou (1883) Eritrea (1887) Dahomey (1890) Mashonaland (1890) Dahomey (1892) Matabeleland (1893) Wassoulou (1894) Ashanti (1895) Ethiopia (1895) Matabeleland (1896) Zanzibar (1896) Benin (1897) Wassoulou (1898) Chad
Chad
(1898) (Kousséri) Fashoda (1898) South Africa (1899) Namibia (1904) Tanganyika (1905)
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First Moroccan Crisis
The First Moroccan Crisis
First Moroccan Crisis
(also known as the Tangier
Tangier
Crisis) was an international crisis between March 1905 and May 1906 over the status of Morocco. The crisis worsened German relations with both France
France
and the United Kingdom, and helped enhance the new Anglo-French Entente.Contents1 The Kaiser's visit 2 French reaction; concentration of troops for war2.1 The Algeciras Conference3 Consequence 4 Further reading 5 See also 6 ReferencesThe Kaiser's visit[edit] On March 31, 1905, Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany
Germany
landed at Tangier, Morocco
Morocco
and conferred with representatives of Sultan Abdelaziz of Morocco.[1] The Kaiser proceeded to tour the city on the back of a white horse
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Maghrawa
The Maghrawa or Meghrawa (Berber: imeghrawen) were a large Zenata Berber tribe originating from what is now north of Morocco
Morocco
and Algeria to the mountainous Dahra region to western Algeria. They ruled these areas on behalf of the Umayyad Caliphate
Umayyad Caliphate
of Córdoba in the end of the 10th century and the first half of the 11th century.Contents1 History 2 Maghrawid leaders 3 See also 4 NotesHistory[edit] The Meghrawa, a tribe of Zanata
Zanata
Berbers,[1] were one of the first Berber tribes to submit to Islam
Islam
in the 7th century. They supported Uqba ibn Nafi
Uqba ibn Nafi
in his campaign to the Atlantic
Atlantic
in 683
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Miknasa
The Miknasa (Berber: Imeknasen) is a Zenata
Zenata
Berber tribe in Morocco and western Algeria.[1] Unlike the indigenous Maghrawa of today's Morocco, the Miknasa Berbers originated in southern Ifriqiya
Ifriqiya
(modern Tunisia), but migrated westwards into central Morocco
Morocco
and western Algeria
Algeria
in pre-Islamic times. The modern Moroccan city of Meknes, which took its name from them,[2] bears witness to their presence, as does the Spanish town of Mequinenza.[3] After defeat by the Umayyads, many of the Miknasa converted to Islam.[4] In 711, members of the tribe took part in the conquest of the Visigothic Kingdom
Visigothic Kingdom
under Tariq ibn Ziyad
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Muslim Conquest Of The Maghreb
Muslim conquest of the Levantal-Qaryatayn Bosra Ajnadayn Marj Rahit Fahl Damascus Maraj-al-Debaj Emesa Yarmouk Jerusalem Hazir Aleppo Iron Bridge GermaniciaMuslim conquest of EgyptHeliopolis Babylon Fortress Alexandria NikiouMuslim conquest of North AfricaSufetula Vescera Mamma Carthage Umayyad
Umayyad
invasions of Anatolia and Constantinople1st Constantinople Sebastopolis Tyana 2nd Constantinople Nicaea AkroinonArab–
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Mauretania
 Spain ∟ Ceuta  ∟ Melilla Mauretania
Mauretania
(also spelled Mauritania)[3] is the Latin name for an area in the ancient Maghreb
Maghreb
(Tamazgha). It stretched from central present-day Algeria
Algeria
westwards to the Atlantic, covering northern Morocco, and southward to the Atlas Mountains.[4] Its native inhabitants, seminomadic pastoralists of Berber ancestral stock, were known to the Romans as the Mauri and the Masaesyli.[5] Beginning in 27 BC, the kings of Mauretania
Mauretania
became Roman vassals until about 44 AD when the area was annexed to Rome and divided into two provinces: Mauretania Tingitana
Mauretania Tingitana
and Mauretania
Mauretania
Caesariensis. In the late 3rd century, another province, Mauretania
Mauretania
Sitifensis, was formed out of the eastern part of Caesariensis
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Ancient Rome
In historiography, ancient Rome
Rome
is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome
Rome
in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic
Roman Republic
and Roman Empire
Roman Empire
until the fall of the western empire.[1] The term is sometimes used to just refer to the kingdom and republic periods, excluding the subsequent empire.[2] The civilization began as an Italic settlement in the Italian peninsula, dating from the 8th century BC, that grew into the city of Rome
Rome
and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed
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Classical Arabic
Classical Arabic
Arabic
is the form of the Arabic language
Arabic language
used in Umayyad and Abbasid
Abbasid
literary texts from the 7th century AD to the 9th century AD. The orthography of the Qurʾān was not developed for the standardized form of Classical Arabic; rather, it shows the attempt on the part of writers to record an archaic form of Old Higazi. Modern Standard Arabic
Modern Standard Arabic
(MSA) is its direct descendant used today throughout the Arab world
Arab world
in writing and in formal speaking, for example, prepared speeches, some radio broadcasts, and non-entertainment content;[1] it is also used in modernized versions of the Quran
Quran
and revised editions of poetries and novels from Umayyad and Abbasid
Abbasid
times (7th to 9th centuries)
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North Africa During Antiquity
The History of North Africa
History of North Africa
during the period of Classical Antiquity (c. 8th century BCE – 5th century CE) can be divided roughly into the history of Egypt in the east, the history of Ancient Libya
Ancient Libya
in the middle and the history of Numidia
Numidia
and Mauretania
Mauretania
in the West. The Roman Republic
Roman Republic
established the province of Africa in 146 BCE after the defeat of Carthage. The Roman Empire
Roman Empire
eventually controlled the entire Mediterranean coast of Africa, adding Egypt in 30 BCE, Creta et Cyrenaica in 20 BCE, and Mauretania
Mauretania
in CE 44. Initially, in the east, Egypt was under Persian rule during the early phase of classical antiquity, passing to the Ptolemaic dynasty in the Hellenistic era
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Capsian Culture
The Capsian culture
Capsian culture
was a Mesolithic
Mesolithic
culture centered in the Maghreb, which lasted from about 10,000 to 6,000 BCE. It was named after the town of Gafsa
Gafsa
in Tunisia, which was Capsa in Roman times. The Capsian industry was concentrated mainly in modern Tunisia
Tunisia
and Algeria, with some lithic sites attested in southern Spain
Spain
to Sicily. It is traditionally divided into two horizons, the Capsien typique (Typical Capsian) and the Capsien supérieur (Upper Capsian), which are sometimes found in chronostratigraphic sequence
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Iberomaurusian
The Iberomaurusian
Iberomaurusian
("of Iberia and Mauritania"; it was once believed that it extended into Spain) or Oranian is a backed bladelet lithic industry found throughout North Africa.[1] Its name, meaning "of Iberia and Mauritania", is based on Pallary (1909)'s belief[2] that it extended over the strait of Gibraltar into Spain and Portugal, a theory now generally discounted (Garrod 1938).[3] Pallary (1909) originally described the industry based on material found at the site of Abri Mouillah.[2] Because the name of the
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Aterian
The Aterian
Aterian
is a Middle Stone Age
Stone Age
(or Middle Palaeolithic) stone tool industry centered in North Africa, but also possibly found in Oman
Oman
and the Thar Desert.[1] The earliest Aterian
Aterian
dates to c. 145,000 years ago, at the site of Ifri n'Ammar in Morocco.[2] However, most of the early dates cluster around the beginning of the Last Interglacial, around 130,000 years ago, when the environment of North Africa
North Africa
began to ameliorate
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