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Marie Tharp
Marie Tharp
Marie Tharp
(/θɑːrp/; July 30, 1920 – August 23, 2006) was an American geologist and oceanographic cartographer who, in partnership with Bruce Heezen, created the first scientific map of the Atlantic Ocean floor. Tharp's work revealed the presence of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, causing a paradigm shift in earth science that led to acceptance of the theories of plate tectonics and continental drift.[1]Contents1 Early life 2 Career 3 Posthumous recognition3.1 Marie Tharp
Marie Tharp
Fellowship4 Journal articles 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksEarly life[edit] Tharp was born in Ypsilanti, Michigan. Her mother, Bertha, was an instructor in German and Latin; her father, William, made soil classification maps for the U.S. Department of Agriculture
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New York Times
The New York Times
The New York Times
(sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City
New York City
with worldwide influence and readership.[6][7][8] Founded in 1851, the paper has won 122 Pulitzer Prizes, more than any other newspaper.[9][10] As of September 2016, it had the largest combined print-and-digital circulation of any daily newspaper in the United States.[11] The New York Times is ranked 18th in the world by circulation. The paper is owned by The New York Times
The New York Times
Company, which is publicly traded but primarily controlled by the Ochs-Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure.[12] It has been owned by the family since 1896; A.G
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R/V Atlantis (AGOR-25)
R/V Atlantis is an oceanographic research vessel operated by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution as part of the University-National Oceanographic Laboratory System (UNOLS) fleet.[1] She is the host vessel of DSV Alvin.[2] She is named for the first research vessel operated by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, R/V Atlantis for which the Space Shuttle Atlantis is also named.Contents1 Built in Mississippi 2 Deck equipment 3 Miscellaneous on-board equipment 4 Sister ships 5 References 6 External linksBuilt in Mississippi[edit] Atlantis was built by Halter Marine Inc., Gulfport, Mississippi.[3] She was laid down in August 1994 and launched in February 1996.[4] She was delivered to the U.S. Navy on 25 February 1998, as R/V Atlantis (T-AGOR-25) a Thomas G. Thompson-class oceanographic research ship. Deck equipment[edit]WinchesTraction - 30,000' .68" EM or 9/16" wire Hydro - 33,000' 3-cond. EM or 1/4" wireHeavy EquipmentCranes - two @ 42,000 lbs
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Amoco
Amoco
Amoco
Corporation, originally Standard Oil
Oil
Company (Indiana), is a global chemical and oil company that was founded in 1889 around a refinery located in Whiting, Indiana, United States. It later absorbed the American Oil
Oil
Company, founded in Baltimore
Baltimore
in 1910 and incorporated in 1922 by Louis Blaustein and his son Jacob. Amoco
Amoco
merged with British Petroleum
Petroleum
in December 1998, forming BP Amoco. Shortly after the merger, Amoco
Amoco
stations began a rebranding that saw the stations change their names to the BP marque while continuing to sell Amoco-branded fuel
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New York, New York
Bronx, Kings (Brooklyn), New York (Manhattan), Queens, Richmond (Staten Island)Historic colonies New Netherland Province of New YorkSettled 1624Consolidated 1898Named for James, Duke of YorkGovernment[2] • Type Mayor–Council • Body New York City
New York City
Council • Mayor Bill de Blasio
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Columbia University
Columbia University
Columbia University
(Columbia; officially Columbia University
Columbia University
in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City. Columbia contains the oldest college in the state of New York and is the fifth chartered institution of higher learning in the United States, making it one of nine colonial colleges founded prior to the Declaration of Independence.[9] It was established as King's College by royal charter of George II of Great Britain
George II of Great Britain
and renamed Columbia College in 1784 following the American Revolutionary War. The college has produced numerous distinguished alumni
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Technical Drawing
Technical drawing, drafting or drawing, is the act and discipline of composing drawings that visually communicate how something functions or is constructed. Technical drawing
Technical drawing
is essential for communicating ideas in industry and engineering. To make the drawings easier to understand, people use familiar symbols, perspectives, units of measurement, notation systems, visual styles, and page layout. Together, such conventions constitute a visual language and help to ensure that the drawing is unambiguous and relatively easy to understand. Many of the symbols and principles of technical drawing are codified in an international standard called ISO 128. The need for precise communication in the preparation of a functional document distinguishes technical drawing from the expressive drawing of the visual arts. Artistic drawings are subjectively interpreted; their meanings are multiply determined
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Military Aircraft
A military aircraft is any fixed-wing or rotary-wing aircraft that is operated by a legal or insurrectionary armed service of any type.[1] Military aircraft
Military aircraft
can be either combat or non-combat:Combat aircraft are designed to destroy enemy equipment using their own aircraft ordnance.[1] Combat aircraft are normally developed and procured only by military forces. Non-combat aircraft are not designed for combat as their primary function, but may carry weapons for self-defense
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World War II
Allied victoryCollapse of Nazi Germany Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires Dissolution of the League of Nations Creation of the United Nations Emergence of the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers Beginning of the Cold War
Cold War
(more...)ParticipantsAllied Powers Axis PowersCommanders and leadersMain Allied leaders Joseph Stalin Franklin D
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Topography
Topography
Topography
is the study of the shape and features of the surface of the Earth
Earth
and other observable astronomical objects including planets, moons, and asteroids. The topography of an area could refer to the surface shapes and features themselves, or a description (especially their depiction in maps). This field of geoscience and planetary science is concerned with local detail in general, including not only relief but also natural and artificial features, and even local history and culture. This meaning is less common in the United States, where topographic maps with elevation contours have made "topography" synonymous with relief. The older sense of topography as the study of place still has currency in Europe. Topography
Topography
in a narrow sense involves the recording of relief or terrain, the three-dimensional quality of the surface, and the identification of specific landforms
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Research Vessel Vema
The research vessel Vema was a three-masted schooner of the Lamont Geological Observatory (now the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory [LDEO]), a research unit of Columbia University. The 202 ft (62 m). vessel, with her almost indestructible Swedish wrought iron hull, became renowned as one of the world’s most productive oceanographic research vessels. The ship had been first sailed for pleasure under the name Hussar, and after her career as a research vessel entered a new career as the cruising yacht Mandalay.[2]Contents1 E.F. Hutton's luxury yacht, Hussar 2 Vema during WWII 3 Research Vessel Vema3.1 Seafloor features4 Cruising yacht Mandalay 5 Other research vessels of the LDEO 6 Note 7 References 8 External linksE.F. Hutton's luxury yacht, Hussar[edit] Designed by Cox & Stevens and built in 1923 by Burmeister & Wain in Copenhagen for E. F
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Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
(WHOI, acronym pronounced /ˈhuːi/ HOO-ee) is a private, nonprofit research and higher education facility dedicated to the study of all aspects of marine science and engineering and to the education of marine researchers. Established in 1930 in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, it is the largest independent oceanographic research institution in the U.S., with staff and students numbering about 1,000. On October 1, 2015, Mark Abbott became the institution's tenth president and director.[1] The Institution is organized into six departments,[2] the Cooperative Institute for Climate and Ocean Research, and a marine policy center. Its shore-based facilities are located in the village of Woods Hole, Massachusetts, United States and a mile and a half away on the Quissett Campus
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Seismography
A seismometer is an instrument that measures motion of the ground, caused by, for example, an earthquake, a volcanic eruption, or the use of explosives.[1] Records of seismic waves allow seismologists to map the interior of the Earth and to locate and measure the size of events like these.Contents1 Basic principles 2 Nomenclature 3 History3.1 Ancient era 3.2 Modern designs4 Modern instruments4.1 Teleseismometers 4.2 Strong-motion seismometers 4.3 Other forms 4.4 Interconnected seismometers5 Recording 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksBasic principles[edit] A simple seismometer, sensitive to up-down motions of the Earth, is like a weight hanging from a spring, both suspended from a frame that moves along with any motion detected. The relative motion between the weight (called the mass) and the frame provides a measurement of the vertical ground motion
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Earth Science
Earth
Earth
science or geoscience is a widely embraced term for the fields of science related to the planet Earth. It is the branch of science dealing with the physical constitution of the earth and its atmosphere. Earth
Earth
science is the study of our planet’s physical characteristics, from earthquakes to raindrops, and floods to fossils. Earth
Earth
science can be considered to be a branch of planetary science, but with a much older history. “ Earth
Earth
science” is a broad term that encompasses four main branches of study, each of which is further broken down into more specialized fields. There are both reductionist and holistic approaches to Earth
Earth
sciences. It is also the study of the Earth
Earth
and its neighbors in space
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Earthquake
An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the shaking of the surface of the Earth, resulting from the sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves. Earthquakes can range in size from those that are so weak that they cannot be felt to those violent enough to toss people around and destroy whole cities. The seismicity or seismic activity of an area refers to the frequency, type and size of earthquakes experienced over a period of time. The word tremor is also used for non-earthquake seismic rumbling. At the Earth's surface, earthquakes manifest themselves by shaking and sometimes displacement of the ground. When the epicenter of a large earthquake is located offshore, the seabed may be displaced sufficiently to cause a tsunami
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Landscape Art
Landscape
Landscape
painting, also known as landscape art, is the depiction in art of landscapes – natural scenery such as mountains, valleys, trees, rivers, and forests, especially where the main subject is a wide view – with its elements arranged into a coherent composition. In other works, landscape backgrounds for figures can still form an important part of the work. Sky is almost always included in the view, and weather is often an element of the composition. Detailed landscapes as a distinct subject are not found in all artistic traditions, and develop when there is already a sophisticated tradition of representing other subjects. The two main traditions spring from Western painting
Western painting
and Chinese art, going back well over a thousand years in both cases
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