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Marie Antoinette
Marie Antoinette
Marie Antoinette
(/ˌæntwəˈnɛt, ˌɒ̃twə-/;[1] French: [maʁi ɑ̃twanɛt]; born Maria Antonia Josepha Johanna; 2 November 1755 – 16 October 1793) was the last Queen of France before the French Revolution. She was born an Archduchess
Archduchess
of Austria, and was the penultimate child of Empress Maria Theresa
Maria Theresa
and Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor. In April 1770, upon her marriage to Louis-Auguste, heir apparent to the French throne, she became Dauphine of France
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Dynasty
A dynasty (UK: /ˈdɪnəsti/, US: /ˈdaɪnəsti/) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,[1] usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes also appearing in elective republics. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "house",[2] which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital", etc., depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states, such as Ancient Egypt, the Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends, and artifacts of that period ("a Ming-dynasty vase")
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Proclamation Of The Abolition Of The Monarchy
During the French Revolution, the proclamation of the abolition of the monarchy (French: Proclamation de l'abolition de la royauté) was a proclamation by the National Convention
National Convention
of France announcing that it had abolished the French monarchy on 21 September 1792.Contents1 Prelude 2 Proposition for abolition 3 End of an era 4 References 5 External linksPrelude[edit] The Convention's députés were instructed to put an end to the crisis that had broken out since the prevented flight to Varennes of Louis XVI (June 1791) and the bloody capture of the Tuileries
Tuileries
(10 August 1792)
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French Language
French (le français [lə fʁɑ̃sɛ] ( listen) or la langue française [la lɑ̃ɡ fʁɑ̃sɛz]) is a Romance language
Romance language
of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French has evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin
Latin
in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France
France
and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages
Celtic languages
of Northern Roman Gaul
Gaul
like Gallia Belgica
Gallia Belgica
and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders
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German Language
No official regulation ( German orthography
German orthography
regulated by the Council for German Orthography[4]). Language
Language
codesISO 639-1 deISO 639-2 ger (B) deu (T)ISO 639-3 Variously: deu – German gmh&#
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Habsburg Monarchy
The Habsburg Monarchy
Monarchy
(German: Habsburgermonarchie) or Empire is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1521 and 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine
Habsburg-Lorraine
until 1918. The Monarchy
Monarchy
was a composite state composed of territories within and outside the Holy Roman Empire, united only in the person of the monarch. The dynastic capital was Vienna, except from 1583 to 1611,[2] when it was moved to Prague
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Heir Apparent
An heir apparent is a person who is first in a line of succession and cannot be displaced from inheriting by the birth of another person. An heir presumptive, by contrast, is someone who is first in line to inherit a title but who can be displaced by the birth of a more eligible heir. Today these terms most commonly describe heirs to hereditary titles (e.g. titles of nobility) or offices, especially when only inheritable by a single person. Most monarchies refer to the heir apparent of their thrones with the descriptive term of crown prince but these heirs may also be accorded with a more specific substantive title, such as Prince of Orange
Prince of Orange
in the Netherlands, Duke of Brabant
Duke of Brabant
in Belgium, Prince of Asturias
Prince of Asturias
in Spain, or Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
in the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms
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Promiscuous
Promiscuity
Promiscuity
is the practice of having casual sex frequently with different partners or being indiscriminate in the choice of sexual partners.[1] The term can carry a moral judgment if the social ideal for sexual activity is monogamous relationships. A common example of behavior viewed as promiscuous by many cultures is the one-night stand, and its frequency is used by researchers as a marker for promiscuity.[2] What sexual behavior is considered promiscuous varies between cultures, as does the prevalence of promiscuity. Different standards are often applied to different genders and civil statuses. Feminists have traditionally argued a significant double standard exists between how men and women are judged for promiscuity
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Tuileries Palace
Coordinates: 48°51′44″N 2°19′57″E / 48.86222°N 2.33250°E / 48.86222; 2.33250Tuileries PalacePalais des TuileriesThe Tuileries Palace
Palace
and the Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel
Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel
circa 1860. The Arc de Triomphe de l'Etoile
Arc de Triomphe de l'Etoile
can be seen in the background.General informationType Royal residenceArchitectural style Built in the 16th century: Renaissance, Additions of the 17th and 18th centuries: Louis XIII Style and Baroque, Additions of the 19th century: Neo-Classicism, Neo-Baroque and Napoleon III
Napoleon III
StyleConstruction started 1564Completed 1860'sDemolished 23 May 1871The Tuileries Palace
Palace
(French: Palais des Tuileries, IPA: [palɛ de tɥilʁi]) was a royal and imperial palace in Paris
Paris
which stood on the right bank of the River Seine
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High Treason
Treason
Treason
is criminal disloyalty. Historically, in common law countries, high treason is treason against the state. It was differentiated from petty treason (or petit treason), which was treason against a lesser lawful superior (such as a servant killing his master). Petty treason was restricted to cases of homicide in 1351, and came to be considered a more serious degree of murder. As common law jurisdictions around the world abolished petty treason, the concept of high treason gradually faded, and today use of the word "treason" generally refers to what was historically known as high treason. In Canadian law, however, there are still two separate offences of treason and high treason, but both of these, in fact, fall in the historical category of high treason.[1] In Canada, the main difference in law between treason and high treason depends on whether the nation is at war
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Roman Catholicism
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.29 billion members worldwide.[4] As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation.[5] Headed by the Bishop of Rome, known as the Pope, the church's doctrines are summarised in the Nicene Creed
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Vienna, Austria
Vienna
Vienna
(/viˈɛnə/ ( listen);[9][10] German: Wien, pronounced [viːn] ( listen)) is the capital and largest city of Austria
Austria
and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna
Vienna
is Austria's primary city, with a population of about 1.8 million[1] (2.6 million within the metropolitan area,[4] nearly one third of Austria's population), and its cultural, economic, and political centre. It is the 7th-largest city by population within city limits in the European Union
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Archduchy Of Austria
The Archduchy of Austria
Austria
(German: Erzherzogtum Österreich) was a major principality of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
and the nucleus of the Habsburg Monarchy. With its capital at Vienna, the archduchy was centered at the Empire's southeastern periphery. The Archduchy developed out of the Bavarian Margraviate of Austria, elevated to the Duchy of Austria
Duchy of Austria
according to the 1156 Privilegium Minus by Emperor Frederick Barbarossa. The House of Habsburg
House of Habsburg
came to the Austrian throne in Vienna
Vienna
in 1282 and in 1453 Emperor Frederick III, also Austrian ruler, officially adopted the archducal title
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Vienna
Vienna
Vienna
(/viˈɛnə/ ( listen);[9][10] German: Wien, pronounced [viːn] ( listen)) is the capital and largest city of Austria
Austria
and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna
Vienna
is Austria's primary city, with a population of about 1.8 million[1] (2.6 million within the metropolitan area,[4] nearly one third of Austria's population), and its cultural, economic, and political centre. It is the 7th-largest city by population within city limits in the European Union
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Hofburg Palace
Coordinates: 48°12′23″N 16°21′55″E / 48.206507°N 16.365262°E / 48.206507; 16.365262 Hofburg
Hofburg
Neue Burg
Neue Burg
section, seen from Heldenplatz. The statue of Archduke Charles is also pictured.General plan of Hofburg
Hofburg
Palace. 1 Swiss Wing, 2a Augustinian Church, 2b Augustinian Monastery, 3 Stallburg, 4 Amalienburg, 5 Leopoldine Wing, 6 Redouten Wing, 7 Winter Riding School, 8 Imperial Library, 9 Augustinian Wing, 10 Archduke Albrecht Palace
Palace
(formerly Tarouca-de Sylva Palace), 11 Imperial Chancellory Wing, 12 Festsaal - Festival Hall Wing, 13 St. Michael's Wing, 14 Neue Burg
Neue Burg
Wing, 15 Corps de Logis, 16 Palm House, A Inner Castle Square, B Ballhausplatz
Ballhausplatz
- Ball House Square, C St
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Habsburg Empire
The Habsburg Monarchy
Monarchy
(German: Habsburgermonarchie) or Empire is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1521 and 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine
Habsburg-Lorraine
until 1918. The Monarchy
Monarchy
was a composite state composed of territories within and outside the Holy Roman Empire, united only in the person of the monarch. The dynastic capital was Vienna, except from 1583 to 1611,[2] when it was moved to Prague
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