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Margarodidae
See text.SynonymsTermitococcidae Jakubski, 1965[2][3]The Margarodidae
Margarodidae
(illegitimately as Margodidae) or ground pearls (cottony cushion scales, giant coccids, giant scale insects) are a family of scale insects within the superfamily Coccoidea
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Taxonomy (biology)
In biology, taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus, and species
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Icerya
See text. Icerya
Icerya
is a genus of scale insects in the family Monophlebidae. Hermaphroditism[edit] Hermaphroditism
Hermaphroditism
is extremely rare in the insect world despite the comparatively common nature of this condition in the crustaceans. Several species of Icerya, including the pestiferous cottony-cushion scale, Icerya
Icerya
purchasi, are known to be hermaphrodites that reproduce by self-fertilising
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Achilidae
Achilidae
Achilidae
is a family of achilid planthoppers in the order Hemiptera. There are at least 160 genera and 520 described species in Achilidae.[1][2][3][4][5]Synecdoche impunctataContents1 See also 2 References 3 Further reading 4 External linksSee also[edit]List of Achilidae
Achilidae
generaReferences[edit]^ " Achilidae
Achilidae
Report". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 2018-04-06.  ^ "Browse Achilidae". Catalogue of Life. Retrieved 2018-04-06.  ^ "Achilidae". GBIF. Retrieved 2018-04-06.  ^ " Achilidae
Achilidae
Family Information". BugGuide.net. Retrieved 2018-04-06.  ^ " Achilidae
Achilidae
Overview". Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved 2018-04-06. Further reading[edit]Bantock, T.; Botting, J. (2013). "British Bugs, an online identification guide to UK Hemiptera". Retrieved 2018-04-06.  Bartlett, C.R. (2012)
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Aetalionidae
Aetalionidae
Aetalionidae
are a family of plant-hoppers or tree-hoppers in the superfamily Membracoidea. Aetalionidae
Aetalionidae
are somewhat like Membracidae in that they have one to three rows of short spines on the hind tibia but differ in having the front femur fused to the trochanter and the scutellum is completely exposed. The females have finger-like protrusions on the genital capsule.[1] The family is mostly Neotropical
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Clastopteridae
Clastopteridae is a family of free-living hemipterans in the family Clastopteridae. There are at least 30 described species in Clastopteridae.[1][2] A genus of Clastopteridae is Clastoptera
Clastoptera
Germar, 1839. References[edit]^ " Clastopteridae Family Information". BugGuide.net. Iowa State University. Retrieved 2018-01-26.  ^ " Clastopteridae Report". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 2018-01-26. Cryan, Jason R., and Gavin J. Svenson (2010). "Family-level relationships of the spittlebugs and froghoppers (Hemiptera: Cicadomorpha: Cercopoidea)". Systematic Entomology, vol. 35, no. 3, 393-415. Hamilton, K. G. Andrew (2001). "A new family of froghoppers from the American tropics (Hemiptera: Cercopoidea: Epipygidae)". Biodiversity, vol. 2, no. 3, 15-21.Further reading[edit]Ross H. Arnett (30 July 2000). American Insects: A Handbook of the Insects of America North of Mexico
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Paraneoptera
Paraneoptera
Paraneoptera
is a monophyletic superorder of insects which includes four orders, the bark lice, true lice, thrips, and hemipterans, the true bugs.[1] The mouthparts of the Paraneoptera
Paraneoptera
reflect diverse feeding habits. Basal groups are microbial surface feeders, whereas more advanced groups feed on plant or animal fluids.[1]Contents1 Hemiptera 2 Psocoptera 3 Phthiraptera 4 Thrips 5 ReferencesHemiptera[edit] Main article: Hemiptera Hemiptera
Hemiptera
/hɛˈmɪptərə/ is an order of insects most often known as the true bugs (cf
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Animal
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals consume organic material, breathe oxygen, are able to move, reproduce sexually, and grow from a hollow sphere of cells, the blastula, during embryonic development. Over 1.5 million living animal species have been described—of which around 1 million are insects—but it has been estimated there are over 7 million in total. Animals range in size from 8.5 millionths of a metre to 33.6 metres (110 ft) long and have complex interactions with each other and their environments, forming intricate food webs. The study of animals is called zoology. Aristotle divided animals into those with blood and those without. Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
created the first hierarchical biological classification for animals in 1758 with his Systema Naturae, which Jean-Baptiste Lamarck expanded into 14 phyla by 1809
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Pterygota
For alternative classifications and fossil orders, see text.The Pterygota
Pterygota
are a subclass of insects that includes the winged insects. It also includes insect orders that are secondarily wingless (that is, insect groups whose ancestors once had wings but that have lost them as a result of subsequent evolution).[1] The pterygotan group comprises almost all insects. The insect orders not included are the Archaeognatha
Archaeognatha
(jumping bristletails) and the Zygentoma
Zygentoma
(silverfishes and firebrats), two primitively wingless insect orders
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Wikispecies
Wikispecies
Wikispecies
is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation. Its aim is to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species; the project is directed at scientists, rather than at the general public
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Institute Of Food And Agricultural Sciences
The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
(IFAS) is an agriculture, life science, pathogen, and invasive species research facility in Florida
Florida
affiliated with University of Florida
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University Of Florida
The University of Florida
Florida
(commonly referred to as Florida
Florida
or UF) is an American public land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant research university on a 2,000-acre (8.1 km2) campus in Gainesville, Florida
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a digital object identifier (DOI) is a persistent identifier or handle used to identify objects uniquely, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to identify their referents uniquely
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Neoptera
Neoptera
Neoptera
is a classification group that includes most parts of the winged insects, specifically those that can flex their wings over their abdomens. This is in contrast with the more basal orders of winged insects (the "Palaeoptera" assemblage), which are unable to flex their wings in this way.Contents1 Classification 2 Phylogeny 3 References 4 External linksClassification[edit] The taxon Neoptera
Neoptera
was proposed by А.М
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Monophyletic
In cladistics, a monophyletic group, or clade, is a group of organisms that consists of all the descendants of a common ancestor. Monophyletic groups are typically characterised by shared derived characteristics (synapomorphies), which distinguish organisms in the clade from other organisms. The arrangement of the members of a monophyletic group is called a monophyly. Monophyly
Monophyly
is contrasted with paraphyly and polyphyly as shown in the second diagram. A paraphyletic group consists of all of the descendants of a common ancestor minus one or more monophyletic groups. A polyphyletic group is characterized by convergent features or habits of scientific interest (for example, night-active primates, fruit trees, aquatic insects). The features by which a polyphyletic group is differentiated from others are not inherited from a common ancestor. These definitions have taken some time to be accepted
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Synonym (taxonomy)
In scientific nomenclature, a synonym is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name,[1] although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature.[2] For example, Linnaeus
Linnaeus
was the first to give a scientific name (under the currently used system of scientific nomenclature) to the Norway spruce, which he called Pinus abies. This name is no longer in use: it is now a synonym of the current scientific name, Picea abies. Unlike synonyms in other contexts, in taxonomy a synonym is not interchangeable with the name of which it is a synonym. In taxonomy, synonyms are not equals, but have a different status. For any taxon with a particular circumscription, position, and rank, only one scientific name is considered to be the correct one at any given time (this correct name is to be determined by applying the relevant code of nomenclature)
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