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March Of Turin
The March or Marquisate of Turin
Turin
(Italian: marca di Torino) was a territory of medieval Italy from the mid-10th century, when it was established as the Arduinic March (Latin: marca Arduinica). It comprised several counties in Piedmont, including the counties of Turin, Auriate, Albenga
Albenga
and, probably, Ventimiglia.[n 1] The confines of the march thus stretched across the Po Valley
Po Valley
from the Western Alps in the north, to the Ligurian Sea. Because of the later importance of the city and valley of Susa, to the House of Savoy, who styled themselves as "marquises of Susa", the march is sometimes referred to as the March or Marquisate of Susa. Yet in the tenth and early eleventh centuries, the city and valley of Susa were not the most important part of the county, let alone the march, of Turin
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Italian Language
Italian ( italiano (help·info) [itaˈljaːno] or lingua italiana [ˈliŋɡwa itaˈljaːna]) is a Romance language. Italian is by most measures, together with the Sardinian language, the closest tongue to vulgar Latin
Latin
of the Romance languages.[7] Italian is an official language in Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, Vatican City
Vatican City
and western Istria
Istria
(in Slovenia
Slovenia
and Croatia). It used to have official status in Albania, Malta
Malta
and Monaco, where it is still widely spoken, as well as in former Italian East Africa
Italian East Africa
and Italian North Africa regions where it plays a significant role in various sectors
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Bertha Of Savoy
Bertha of Savoy
Bertha of Savoy
(21 September 1051 – 27 December 1087), also called Bertha of Turin, a member of the Burgundian House of Savoy, was Queen consort of Germany from 1066 and Empress consort of the Holy Roman Empire from 1084 until 1087 as the first wife of the Salian emperor Henry IV.Contents1 Life1.1 Marriage 1.2 Attempted repudiation 1.3 Canossa 1.4 Death2 Children 3 Notes 4 References 5 External linksLife[edit] Bertha of Savoy
Bertha of Savoy
was a daughter of Count Otto I of Savoy (also called Eudes or Odo; c. 1023 – c. 1057/1060) and his wife Adelaide of Susa (c. 1014/1020 – 1091) from the Arduinici noble family. She thereby was the sister of Count Peter I of Savoy (d. 1078), Count Amadeus II of Savoy (d. 1080), and Adelaide (d
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Manfred I Of Turin
Manfred I or Maginfred (died c. 1000) was the second Arduinici marquis of Susa from 977 until his death. Manfred was the eldest son of Arduin Glaber, from whom he inherited the county of Auriate and the vast March of Susa.[1] The march extended from the Susa Valley
Susa Valley
by the Alps
Alps
south across the Po to the Ligurian Sea. Although he ruled for almost twenty-five years, there is little evidence of his activities in surviving sources
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Otto, Count Of Savoy
Otto (French: Odon, Oddon, Othon; Italian: Oddone; c. 1023 – c. 1057/1060)[1] was count of Savoy
Savoy
from around 1051 until his death. Through marriage to Adelaide, the heiress of Ulric Manfred II, he also administered the march of Susa from around 1046 until his death.Contents1 Family 2 Rule 3 Notes 4 References 5 Sources 6 External linksFamily[edit] He was a younger son of Humbert the White-Handed
Humbert the White-Handed
and his wife Ancilla of Lenzburg.[2] Through Humbert's service to the German emperors, the family was granted the counties of Maurienne, Aosta and Sapaudia (Savoy), all at the expense of local bishops or archbishops
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Count Of Aosta
Aosta (Italian: [aˈɔsta] ( listen); French: Aoste [ɔst];[2][3] Arpitan: Aoûta; Latin: Augústa Prætṓrĭa Salassṓrum) is the principal city of Aosta Valley, a bilingual region in the Italian Alps, 110 km (68 mi) north-northwest of Turin. It is situated near the Italian entrance of the Mont Blanc Tunnel, at the confluence of the Buthier and the Dora Baltea, and at the junction of the Great and Little St. Bernard routes. Aosta is not the capital of the province, because Aosta Valley is the only Italian region not divided into provinces
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St Anselm
Anselm of Canterbury[a] (/ˈænsɛlm/), also called Anselm of Aosta (Italian: Anselmo d'Aosta) after his birthplace and Anselm of Bec (French: Anselme du Bec) after his monastery, was a Benedictine monk, abbot, philosopher and theologian of the Catholic Church, who held the office of archbishop of Canterbury from 1093 to 1109. After his death, he was canonized as a saint; his feast day is 21 April. Beginning at Bec, Anselm composed dialogues and treatises with a rational and philosophical approach, sometimes causing him to be credited as the founder of Scholasticism. Despite his lack of recognition in this field in his own time, Anselm is now famed as the originator of the ontological argument for the existence of God and of the satisfaction theory of atonement. He was proclaimed a Doctor of the Church by a bull of Pope Clement XI in 1720. As archbishop, he defended the church's interests in England amid the Investiture Controversy
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Bishop Of Turin
The Roman Catholic Metropolitan Archdiocese
Archdiocese
of Turin
Turin
(Latin: Archidioecesis Taurinensis) is an ecclesiastical territory or diocese of the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
in Italy.[1][2] Founded in the 4th century and elevated to the dignity of an archdiocese on 21 May 1515, by Pope Leo X. Its mother church is the Cathedral of Saint John the Baptist. Since 2010 the Archbishop
Archbishop
of Turin
Turin
has been Cesare Nosiglia.Contents1 History 2 List of Bishops of Turin2.1 to 900 2.2 900 to 12003 List of Archbishops of Turin
Turin
since 1871 4 Notes 5 Books5.1 acknowledgment6 External linksHistory[edit] The first bishop of Turin
Turin
whose name has survived was St Maximus. He can hardly be considered the first bishop of Turin, even though no other bishop is known before him
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Medieval Commune
Medieval communes in the European Middle Ages
Middle Ages
had sworn allegiances of mutual defense (both physical defense and of traditional freedoms) among the citizens of a town or city. These took many forms and varied widely in organization and makeup. Communes are first recorded in the late 11th and early 12th centuries, thereafter becoming a widespread phenomenon. They had greater development in central-northern Italy, where they became city-states based on partial democracy. At the same time in Germany
Germany
they became free cities, independent from local nobility.Contents1 Etymology 2 Origins 3 Social order 4 Rural communes 5 Evolution in Italy
Italy
and decline in Europe 6 See also 7 Footnotes 8 Sources 9 External linksEtymology[edit] The English and French word "commune" (Italian: comune) appears in Latin records in various forms
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Emperor Henry IV
Henry IV (German: Heinrich IV; 11 November 1050 – 7 August 1106) ascended to King of the Germans[1] in 1056.[2] From 1084 until his forced abdication in 1105, he was also referred to as the King of the Romans and Holy Roman Emperor. He was the third emperor of the Salian dynasty and one of the most powerful and important figures of the 11th century. His reign was marked by the Investiture Controversy
Investiture Controversy
with the Papacy, and he was excommunicated five times by three different popes. Civil wars over his throne took place in both Italy and Germany
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Conrad II Of Italy
Conrad II or Conrad (III)[a] (12 February 1074 – 27 July 1101) was the Duke of Lower Lorraine
Duke of Lower Lorraine
(1076–87), King of Germany
King of Germany
(1087–98) and King of Italy
King of Italy
(1093–98). He was the second son of Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV and Bertha of Savoy, and their eldest son to reach adulthood, his older brother Henry having been born and died in the same month of August 1071. Conrad's rule in Lorraine and Germany was nominal
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Umberto II, Count Of Savoy
Umberto II, nicknamed the Fat (1065, Carignano, Piedmont
Piedmont
– 19 October 1103,[1]), was Count of Savoy
Count of Savoy
from 1080 until his death in 1103. He was the son of Amadeus II of Savoy. He was married to Gisela of Burgundy,[1] daughter of William I, Count of Burgundy, and had 7 children:Amadeus III of Savoy[1] William, Bishop of Liège[1] Adelaide, (d. 1154), married to Louis VI of France[1] Agnes, (d. 1127), married to Archimbald VI, lord of Bourbon[1] Umberto[1] Reginald[1] Guy, abbey of NamurReferences[edit]^ a b c d e f g h C.W. Previte-Orton, The Early History of the House of Savoy, (Cambridge University Press, 1912), 276-277.Umberto II the Fat House of Savoy Born: 1065 Died: 14 October 1103Regnal titlesPreceded by Amadeus II Count of Savoy c
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Saracens
Saracen
Saracen
was a term widely used among Christian writers in Europe during the Middle Ages. The term's meaning evolved during its history. In the early centuries of the Common Era, Greek and Latin writings used this term to refer to the people who lived in desert areas in and near the Roman province of Arabia Petraea, and who were specifically distinguished from others as a people known as Arabs.[1][2] In Europe during the Early Middle Ages, the term came to be associated with tribes of Arabia as well.[3] By the 12th century, "Saracen" had become synonymous with "Muslim" in Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin
literature
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Boniface Del Vasto
Boniface del Vasto (c. 1060 – c. 1130) was the margrave of Savona and Western Liguria
Liguria
from 1084 to c.1130. He was the son and successor of Otto and of Bertha, daughter of Ulric Manfred II of Turin.[1] Boniface was a member of the Aleramici
Aleramici
dynasty.Contents1 Marriages 2 Children 3 References 4 External links 5 NotesMarriages[edit] As his first wife, Boniface intended to marry an unnamed woman who had been betrothed to his brother, Anselm, before his death
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Herman IV, Duke Of Swabia
Herman IV (c. 1015-July 1038) was the Duke of Swabia
Duke of Swabia
(1030–1038). He was the second son of Ernest I and Gisela of Swabia. He was one of the Babenberg
Babenberg
dukes of Swabia. Herman became duke in 1030 following the death of his older brother Ernest II. At the time he was still a minor. Seven years later, his stepfather, the Emperor Conrad II, married him to Adelaide of Susa, the marchioness of Turin, in January 1037. Herman was then invested as margrave of Turin.[1] In July of the next year, while campaigning with Conrad in Southern Italy, he was struck down by an epidemic near Naples
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Otto, Count Of Savoy
Otto (French: Odon, Oddon, Othon; Italian: Oddone; c. 1023 – c. 1057/1060)[1] was count of Savoy
Savoy
from around 1051 until his death. Through marriage to Adelaide, the heiress of Ulric Manfred II, he also administered the march of Susa from around 1046 until his death.Contents1 Family 2 Rule 3 Notes 4 References 5 Sources 6 External linksFamily[edit] He was a younger son of Humbert the White-Handed
Humbert the White-Handed
and his wife Ancilla of Lenzburg.[2] Through Humbert's service to the German emperors, the family was granted the counties of Maurienne, Aosta and Sapaudia (Savoy), all at the expense of local bishops or archbishops
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