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March 21
March
March
21 is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 285 days remaining until the end of the year. This date is slightly more likely to fall on a Monday, Wednesday or Saturday (58 in 400 years each) than on Thursday or Friday (57), and slightly less likely to occur on a Tuesday or Sunday (56). In astrology, the day of the equinox is the first full day of the sign of Aries. It is also the traditional first day of the astrological year. In the 21st century, the equinox usually occurs on March
March
19 or 20, being on March
March
21 only in 2003
2003
and 2007
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True Cross
The True Cross
True Cross
is the name for physical remnants which, by a Christian Church tradition, are said to be from the cross upon which Jesus was crucified.[1] According to post-Nicene historians such as Socrates of Constantinople, the Empress St. Helena, mother of St. Constantine, the first Christian Emperor of Rome, travelled to the Holy Land
Holy Land
in 326–28, founding churches and establishing relief agencies for the poor. Historians Gelasius of Caesarea and Rufinus claimed that she discovered the hiding place of three crosses that were believed to be used at the crucifixion of Jesus and of two thieves, St. Dismas and Gestas, executed with him; to one cross was affixed the titulus bearing Jesus' name, but St. Helena was not sure until a miracle revealed that that cross was the True Cross. Many churches possess fragmentary remains that are by tradition alleged to be those of the True Cross
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2018
2018
2018
is the current year, and is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2018th year of the Common Era
Common Era
(CE) and
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Peranius Of Iberia
Peranius (Georgian: პერანი) was a Georgian prince from Iberia and a military commander in Roman (Byzantine) service. According to Procopius, he was the eldest son of the Iberian king Gurgenes.[1] Gurgenes can be identified with Vakhtang I Gorgasali of the Georgian sources; and Peranius might have been his brother rather than a son as suggested by Procopius. He was the father of Pacurius and uncle of Phazas, two other Iberian generals of the Roman army. Peranius and his family fled the Sassanid oppression of Iberia into Lazica in the 520s.[1] They placed themselves under Roman protection and left for Constantinople where Peranius joined the Byzantine imperial army. Later in the 530s, he served under Belisarius in Italy and was in Rome during the siege by the Goths (537–538). During the siege, he defended the Porta Praenestina and led a sally from the Porta Salaria
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Bessas (general)
Bessas (Greek: Βέσσας, before 480 – after 554) was an East Roman (Byzantine) general of Gothic origin from Thrace, primarily known for his career in the wars of Justinian I
Justinian I
(reigned 527–565). He distinguished himself against the Sassanid Persians in the Iberian War and under the command of Belisarius
Belisarius
in the Gothic War, but after Belisarius' departure from Italy he failed to confront the resurgent Goths
Goths
and was largely responsible for the loss of Rome
Rome
in 546. Returning east in disgrace, despite his advanced age he was appointed as commander in the Lazic War
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Byzantine Empire
The Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, was the continuation of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the East during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople
Constantinople
(modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium). It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453.[2] During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe
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Vivarium (Rome)
The Vivarium was the location where the ancient Romans kept wild animals used in their entertainments. It was near the Prenestina Gate of Rome. During the first siege of Rome in the Gothic Wars, the Goths broke part of the wall of the Vivarium in an attempt to enter the city. This attempt failed because the regular city wall manned by Byzantine soldiers was behind the Vivarium wall and Belisarius attacked the rear of the Goths near the Prenestina Gate.[1][2] According to the writer Charlotte Anne Eaton, a second, smaller vivarium was located near the Colosseum
Colosseum
and was connected to it via a low vaulted passage. This vivarium was located below the convent of St. John and St. Paul on the Cœlian Mount. This vivarium was a practical necessity because of the considerable distance between the Vivarium by Porta Maggiore
Porta Maggiore
and the Colosseum.[3] References[edit]^ Santosuosso, Antonio (2004)
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Porta Maggiore
Coordinates: 41°53′29″N 12°30′55″E / 41.891512°N 12.515144°E / 41.891512; 12.515144This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in Italian. (December 2008) Click [show] for important translation instructions.View a machine-translated version of the Italian article. Google's machine translation is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation
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Aurelian Walls
The Aurelian
Aurelian
Walls (Italian: Mura aureliane) are a line of city walls built between 271 AD and 275 AD in Rome, Italy, during the reign of the Roman Emperors Aurelian
Aurelian
and Probus. They superseded the earlier Servian Wall
Servian Wall
built during the 4th century BC. The walls enclosed all the seven hills of Rome
Rome
plus the Campus Martius and, on the left bank of the Tiber, the Trastevere
Trastevere
district. The river banks within the city limits appear to have been left unfortified, although they were fortified along the Campus Martius. The size of the entire enclosed area is 1,400 hectares (3,500 acres).[1]Contents1 Construction 2 History 3 Later use 4 Gates 5 Gallery 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksConstruction[edit] The full circuit ran for 19 km (12 mi) surrounding an area of 13.7 km2 (5.3 sq mi)
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Vitiges
Vitiges
Vitiges
or Witiges (died 540) was king of the Ostrogoths
Ostrogoths
in Italy
Italy
from 536 to 540.[1] He succeeded to the throne of Italy
Italy
in the early stages of the Gothic War, as Belisarius
Belisarius
had quickly captured Sicily
Sicily
the previous year and was currently in southern Italy
Italy
at the head of the forces of Justinian I, the Eastern Roman Emperor
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Siege Of Rome (537–38)
Lazic WarPetra PhasisOtherConquest of Spania MelantiasThe First Siege of Rome
Rome
during the Gothic War lasted for a year and nine days, from 2 March 537 to 12 March 538.[2] The city was besieged by the Ostrogothic army under their king Vitiges; the defending East Romans were commanded by Belisarius, one of the most famous and successful Roman generals
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Equinox
An equinox is commonly regarded as the moment the plane of Earth's equator passes through the center of the Sun's disk,[2] which occurs twice each year, around 20 March and 22-23 September. In other words, it is the point in which the center of the visible sun is directly over the equator
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Astrology
Expand list for reference▼ Astrology► Astrology
Astrology
images► Astrology
Astrology
stubs► Astrologers► Astrological ages► Astrological data collectors► Astrological organizations► Astrological signs► History of astrology►
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Heraclius
Heraclius
Heraclius
(Latin: Flavius Heracles
Heracles
Augustus; Greek: Φλάβιος Ἡράκλειος, translit. Flavios Iraklios; c. 575 – February 11, 641) was the Emperor of the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire from 610 to 641.[A 1] He was responsible for introducing Greek as the Eastern Roman Empire's official language. His rise to power began in 608, when he and his father, Heraclius
Heraclius
the Elder, the exarch of Africa, led a revolt against the unpopular usurper Phocas. Heraclius's reign was marked by several military campaigns. The year Heraclius
Heraclius
came to power, the empire was threatened on multiple frontiers. Heraclius
Heraclius
immediately took charge of the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628
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Gregorian Calendar
The Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
is internationally the most widely used civil calendar.[1][2][Note 1] It is named after Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in October
October
1582. It was a refinement to the Julian calendar[3] involving an approximately 0.002% correction in the length of the calendar year. The motivation for the reform was to stop the drift of the calendar with respect to the equinoxes and solstices—particularly the northern vernal equinox, which helps set the date for Easter. Transition to the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
would restore the holiday to the time of the year in which it was celebrated when introduced by the early Church. The reform was adopted initially by the Catholic countries of Europe
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February
February
February
is the second and shortest month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
with 28 days in common years and 29 days in leap years, with the quadrennial 29th day being called the leap day. It is the first of five months to have a length of less than 31 days. February
February
is the third month of meteorological winter in the Northern Hemisphere
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