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Marcellin Berthelot
Pierre Eugène Marcellin Berthelot
Marcellin Berthelot
(French: [bɛʁtəlo]) FRS FRSE
FRSE
(25 October 1827 – 18 March 1907) was a French chemist and politician noted for the Thomsen–Berthelot principle of thermochemistry. He synthesized many organic compounds from inorganic substances, providing a large amount of counterevidence to the theory of Jöns Jakob Berzelius
Jöns Jakob Berzelius
that organic compounds required organisms in their synthesis
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University And State Library Düsseldorf
The University and State Library Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
(German: Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek Düsseldorf, abbreviated ULB Düsseldorf) is a central service institution of Heinrich Heine University. Along with Bonn and Münster, it is also one of the three State Libraries of North Rhine-Westphalia.Contents1 Tradition and Modernity 2 Structure and Holdings 3 Collections3.1 Thomas Mann Collection 3.2 Manuscripts 3.3 Incunabula 3.4 Special
Special
Collections4 References 5 External linksTradition and Modernity[edit] From 1965 to 1969, the University and Library Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
gradually developed out of the Medical Academy in Düsseldorf
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Project Gutenberg
Project Gutenberg
Project Gutenberg
(PG) is a volunteer effort to digitize and archive cultural works, to "encourage the creation and distribution of eBooks".[2] It was founded in 1971 by Michael S. Hart
Michael S. Hart
and is the oldest digital library.[3] Most of the items in its collection are the full texts of public domain books. The project tries to make these as free as possible, in long-lasting, open formats that can be used on almost any computer. As of 23 March 2018[update], Project Gutenberg reached 56,750 items in its collection of free eBooks.[4] The releases are available in plain text but, wherever possible, other formats are included, such as HTML, PDF, EPUB, MOBI, and Plucker. Most releases are in the English language, but many non-English works are also available. There are multiple affiliated projects that are providing additional content, including regional and language-specific works
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Gas Pressure
In a mixture of gases, each gas has a partial pressure which is the hypothetical pressure of that gas if it alone occupied the entire volume of the original mixture at the same temperature.[1] The total pressure of an ideal gas mixture is the sum of the partial pressures of the gases in the mixture. It relies on the following isotherm relation: V x V t o t = p x p t o t = n x n t o t displaystyle frac V_ x V_ tot = frac p_ x p_ tot = frac n_ x n_ tot Vx is the partial volume of any individual gas component (X) Vtot is the total volume of the gas mixture px is the partial pressure of
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Hydrogen
Hydrogen
Hydrogen
is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1. With a standard atomic weight of 7000100800000000000♠1.008, hydrogen is the lightest element on the periodic table. Its monatomic form (H) is the most abundant chemical substance in the Universe, constituting roughly 75% of all baryonic mass.[7][note 1] Non-remnant stars are mainly composed of hydrogen in the plasma state. The most common isotope of hydrogen, termed protium (name rarely used, symbol 1H), has one proton and no neutrons. The universal emergence of atomic hydrogen first occurred during the recombination epoch. At standard temperature and pressure, hydrogen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, nonmetallic, highly combustible diatomic gas with the molecular formula H2. Since hydrogen readily forms covalent compounds with most nonmetallic elements, most of the hydrogen on Earth exists in molecular forms such as water or organic compounds
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Explosion
An explosion is a rapid increase in volume and release of energy in an extreme manner, usually with the generation of high temperatures and the release of gases. Supersonic
Supersonic
explosions created by high explosives are known as detonations and travel via supersonic shock waves. Subsonic explosions are created by low explosives through a slower burning process known as deflagration
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La Grande Encyclopédie
La Grande Encyclopédie, inventaire raisonné des sciences, des lettres, et des arts (The Great Encyclopedia: a systematic inventory of science, letters, and the arts) is a 31-volume encyclopedia published in France
France
from 1886 to 1902 by H. Lamirault, and later by the société anonyme de la grande encyclopédie (Grande Encyclopédie Company). The general secretaries of its editorial board were Ferdinand-Camille Dreyfus and André Berthelot. Major articles are signed and include a bibliography. In its 31 volumes of 1200 pages each, there are about 200,000 articles, 15,000 engraved illustrations and 200 maps. From the Preface:“ Despite numerous attempts, some of which were crowned with success in their time, France
France
still does not have a great encyclopedic work, popular yet up-to-date with the latest progress of science.... The Grande Encyclopedie is a work of high popularization (haute vulgarisation)
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Internet Archive
Coordinates: 37°46′56″N 122°28′18″W / 37.7823°N 122.4716°W / 37.7823; -122.4716Internet ArchiveType of business 501(c)(3) nonprofitType of siteDigital libraryAvailable in EnglishFounded May 12, 1996; 21 years ago (1996-05-12)[1][2]Headquarters Richmond District San Francisco, California, U.S.Chairman Brewster KahleServices Archive-It, Open Library, Wayback Machine
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Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek
The Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek
Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek
(Glypto-, from the Greek root glyphein, to carve and theke, a storing-place) is an art museum in Copenhagen, Denmark
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Dictionary Of Scientific Biography
The Dictionary of Scientific Biography
Biography
is a scholarly reference work that was published from 1970 through 1980. It is supplemented by the New Dictionary of Scientific Biography. Both these publications are comprised in an electronic version, called the Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography.Contents1 Dictionary of Scientific Biography 2 New Dictionary of Scientific Biography 3 Electronic version 4 Critical reception 5 Editions 6 Reviews 7 References 8 External linksDictionary of Scientific Biography[edit] The Dictionary of Scientific Biography
Biography
is a scholarly English-language reference work consisting of biographies of scientists from antiquity to modern times, but excluding scientists who were alive when the Dictionary was first published. It includes scientists who worked in the areas of mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, and earth sciences
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Universe
The Universe
Universe
is all of space and time[a] and their contents,[12] including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy
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PubMed Identifier
PubMed
PubMed
is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine
United States National Library of Medicine
(NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval. From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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Auguste Rodin
François Auguste René Rodin (12 November 1840 – 17 November 1917), known as Auguste Rodin
Auguste Rodin
(/oʊˈɡuːst roʊˈdæ̃/; French: [oɡyst ʁɔdɛ̃]), was a French sculptor[1]. Although Rodin is generally considered the progenitor of modern sculpture,[2] he did not set out to rebel against the past. He was schooled traditionally, took a craftsman-like approach to his work, and desired academic recognition,[3] although he was never accepted into Paris's foremost school of art. Sculpturally, Rodin possessed a unique ability to model a complex, turbulent, deeply pocketed surface in clay. Many of his most notable sculptures were roundly criticized during his lifetime. They clashed with predominant figurative sculpture traditions, in which works were decorative, formulaic, or highly thematic
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Bibcode
The bibcode (also known as the refcode) is a compact identifier used by several astronomical data systems to uniquely specify literature references.Contents1 Adoption 2 Format 3 Examples 4 See also 5 ReferencesAdoption[edit] The Bibliographic Reference Code (refcode) was originally developed to be used in SIMBAD
SIMBAD
and the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database
NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database
(NED), but it became a de facto standard and is now used more widely, for example, by the NASA Astrophysics Data System
Astrophysics Data System
who coined and prefer the term "bibcode".[1][2] Format[edit] The code has a fixed length of 19 characters and has the form YYYYJJJJJVVVVMPPPPA where YYYY is the four-digit year of the reference and JJJJJ is a code indicating where the reference was published
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Science (journal)
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine,[1] is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science[2][3] (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.[4] It was first published in 1880, is currently circulated weekly and has a print subscriber base of around 130,000. Because institutional subscriptions and online access serve a larger audience, its estimated readership is 570,400 people.[5] The major focus of the journal is publishing important original scientific research and research reviews, but Science also publishes science-related news, opinions on science policy and other matters of interest to scientists and others who are concerned with the wide implications of science and technology. Unlike most scientific journals, which focus on a specific field, Science and its rival Nature cover the full range of scientific disciplines
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