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Marcasite
Crystals typically tabular on 010 , curved faces common; stalactitic, reniform, massive; cockscomb and spearhead shapes due to twinning on 101 .Twinning Common and repeated on 101 ; less common on 011 .Cleavage Cleavage: 101 , rather distinct; 110 in tracesFracture Irregular/UnevenTenacity BrittleMohs scale hardness 6-6.5Luster MetallicStreak Dark-grey to black.Diaphaneity OpaqueSpecific gravity 4.875 calculated, 4.887 measuredPleochroism [100] creamy white; [010] light yellowish white; [001] white with rose-brown tint. Anisotropism: Very strong, yellow through pale green to dark greenReferences [1][2][3][4]The mineral marcasite, sometimes called white iron pyrite, is iron sulfide (FeS2) with orthorhombic crystal structure. It is physically and crystallographically distinct from pyrite, which is iron sulfide with cubic crystal structure
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Cubic Crystal System
In crystallography, the cubic (or isometric) crystal system is a crystal system where the unit cell is in the shape of a cube. This is one of the most common and simplest shapes found in crystals and minerals. There are three main varieties of these crystals:Primitive cubic (abbreviated cP[1] and alternatively called simple cubic) Body-centered cubic (abbreviated cI[1] or bcc), Face-centered cubic (abbreviated cF[1] or fcc, and alternatively called cubic close-packed or ccp)Each is subdivided into other variants listed below
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Limestone
Limestone
Limestone
is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs. Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). About 10% of sedimentary rocks are limestones. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes, in which water erodes the limestone over thousands to millions of years
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Cap Blanc Nez
Cap Blanc-Nez
Cap Blanc-Nez
(literally "Cape White Nose" in English; from Dutch Blankenesse, white headland) is a cape on the Côte d'Opale, in the Pas-de-Calais
Pas-de-Calais
département, in northern France. The cliffs of chalk are very similar to the white cliffs of Dover at the other side of the Channel in England
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England
England
England
is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.[6][7][8] It shares land borders with Scotland
Scotland
to the north and Wales
Wales
to the west. The Irish Sea
Irish Sea
lies northwest of England
England
and the Celtic Sea
Celtic Sea
lies to the southwest. England
England
is separated from continental Europe
Europe
by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel
English Channel
to the south
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Kent
Kent
Kent
/kɛnt/ is a county in South East England
England
and one of the home counties. It borders Greater London
Greater London
to the north west, Surrey
Surrey
to the west and East Sussex
East Sussex
to the south west. The county also shares borders with Essex
Essex
along the estuary of the River Thames, and with the French department of Pas-de-Calais
Pas-de-Calais
along the English Channel
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Crystal Structure
In crystallography, crystal structure is a description of the ordered arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules in a crystalline material.[3] Ordered structures occur from the intrinsic nature of the constituent particles to form symmetric patterns that repeat along the principal directions of three-dimensional space in matter. The smallest group of particles in the material that constitutes the repeating pattern is the unit cell of the structure. The unit cell completely defines the symmetry and structure of the entire crystal lattice, which is built up by repetitive translation of the unit cell along its principal axes. The repeating patterns are said to be located at the points of the Bravais lattice. The lengths of the principal axes, or edges, of the unit cell and the angles between them are the lattice constants, also called lattice parameters
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Dover
Dover
Dover
(/ˈdoʊvər/) is a town and major ferry port in the home county of Kent, in South East England. It faces France
France
across the Strait of Dover, the narrowest part of the English Channel, and lies south-east of Canterbury
Canterbury
and east of Maidstone. The town is the administrative centre of the Dover District
Dover District
and home of the Dover
Dover
Calais
Calais
ferry through the Port
Port
of Dover. The surrounding chalk cliffs are known as the White Cliffs of Dover. Archaeological
Archaeological
finds have revealed that the area has always been a focus for peoples entering and leaving Britain
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Sedimentary Rock
Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the deposition and subsequent cementation of that material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water. Sedimentation
Sedimentation
is the collective name for processes that cause mineral or organic particles (detritus) to settle in place. The particles that form a sedimentary rock by accumulating are called sediment. Before being deposited, the sediment was formed by weathering and erosion from the source area, and then transported to the place of deposition by water, wind, ice, mass movement or glaciers, which are called agents of denudation
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Shale
Shale
Shale
is a fine-grained, clastic sedimentary rock composed of mud that is a mix of flakes of clay minerals and tiny fragments (silt-sized particles) of other minerals, especially quartz and calcite.[1] Shale is characterized by breaks along thin laminae or parallel layering or bedding less than one centimeter in thickness, called fissility.[1] It is the most common sedimentary rock.[2]Contents1 Texture 2 Composition and color 3 Formation 4 Historical mining terminology 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksTexture[edit]
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Coal
Coal
Coal
is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams. The harder forms, such as anthracite coal, can be regarded as metamorphic rock because of later exposure to elevated temperature and pressure. Coal
Coal
is composed primarily of carbon, along with variable quantities of other elements, chiefly hydrogen, sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen.[1] Coal
Coal
is a fossil fuel that forms when dead plant matter is converted into peat, which in turn is converted into lignite, then sub-bituminous coal, after that bituminous coal, and lastly anthracite. This involves biological and geological processes
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France
France
France
(French: [fʁɑ̃s]), officially the French Republic (French: République française [ʁepyblik fʁɑ̃sɛz]), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France
France
in western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France
France
extends from the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the English Channel
English Channel
and the North Sea, and from the Rhine
Rhine
to the Atlantic Ocean. The overseas territories include French Guiana
French Guiana
in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans
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Hydrothermal
Hydrothermal circulation
Hydrothermal circulation
in its most general sense is the circulation of hot water ( Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
ὕδωρ, water,[1] and θέρμη, heat [1]). Hydrothermal circulation
Hydrothermal circulation
occurs most often in the vicinity of sources of heat within the Earth's crust
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Vein (geology)
In geology, a vein is a distinct sheetlike body of crystallized minerals within a rock. Veins form when mineral constituents carried by an aqueous solution within the rock mass are deposited through precipitation. The hydraulic flow involved is usually due to hydrothermal circulation.[1] Veins are classically thought of as being the result of growth of crystals on the walls of planar fractures in rocks, with the crystal growth occurring normal to the walls of the cavity, and the crystal protruding into open space. This certainly is the method for the formation of some veins. However, it is rare in geology for significant open space to remain open in large volumes of rock, especially several kilometers below the surface
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English Channel
The English Channel
English Channel
(French: la Manche, "The Sleeve"; German: Ärmelkanal, "Sleeve Channel"; Breton: Mor Breizh, "Sea of Brittany"; Cornish: Mor Bretannek, "British Sea"), also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England
England
from northern France, and links the southern part of the North Sea
North Sea
to the Atlantic Ocean
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Galena
Galena, also called lead glance, is the natural mineral form of lead(II) sulfide. It is the most important ore of lead and an important source of silver.[4] Galena
Galena
is one of the most abundant and widely distributed sulfide minerals. It crystallizes in the cubic crystal system often showing octahedral forms. It is often associated with the minerals sphalerite, calcite and fluorite.Contents1 Lead
Lead
ore deposits 2 Crystal structure 3 Geochemistry 4 Galena
Galena
uses 5 Health issues 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links Lead
Lead
ore deposits[edit] Galena
Galena
on fluorite Galena
Galena
is the main ore of lead, used since ancient times
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