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Marc Chagall
Marc Zakharovich Chagall (/ʃəˈɡɑːl/ shə-GAHL;[3][nb 1] born Moishe Zakharovich Shagal;[4] 6 July [O.S. 24 June] 1887 – 28 March 1985) was a Russian-French artist of Belarusian Jewish origin.[1] An early modernist, he was associated with several major artistic styles and created works in virtually every artistic format, including painting, book illustrations, stained glass, stage sets, ceramic, tapestries and fine art prints. Art critic Robert Hughes referred to Chagall as "the quintessential Jewish artist of the twentieth century" (though Chagall saw his work as "not the dream of one people but of all humanity"). According to art historian Michael J. Lewis, Chagall was considered to be "the last survivor of the first generation of European modernists"
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Saint Petersburg
Saint
Saint
Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, tr. Sankt-Peterburg, IPA: [ˈsankt pʲɪtʲɪrˈburk] ( listen)) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with five million inhabitants in 2012.[9] An important Russian port on the Baltic Sea, it has a status of a federal subject (a federal city). Situated on the Neva
Neva
River, at the head of the Gulf of Finland
Gulf of Finland
on the Baltic Sea, it was founded by Tsar
Tsar
Peter the Great
Peter the Great
on May 27 [O.S. 16] 1703
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Old Style And New Style Dates
Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) are terms sometimes used with dates to indicate that the calendar convention used at the time described is different from that in use at the time the document was being written. There were two calendar changes in Great Britain and its colonies, which may sometimes complicate matters: the first change was to change the start of the year from Lady Day
Lady Day
(25 March) to 1 January; the second was to discard the Julian calendar
Julian calendar
in favour of the Gregorian calendar.[2][3][4] Closely related is the custom of dual dating, where writers gave two consecutive years to reflect differences in the starting date of the year, or to include both the Julian and Gregorian dates. Beginning in 1582, the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
replaced the Julian in Roman Catholic countries
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Toledo, Spain
Toledo (Spanish: [toˈleðo]) is a city and municipality located in central Spain; it is the capital of the province of Toledo and the autonomous community of Castile–La Mancha. Toledo was declared a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
by UNESCO
UNESCO
in 1986 for its extensive monumental and cultural heritage. Toledo is known as the "Imperial City" for having been the main venue of the court of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, and as the "City of the Three Cultures" for the cultural influences of Christians, Muslims and Jews reflected in its history. It was also the capital of the ancient Visigothic kingdom of Hispania, which followed the fall of the Roman Empire, and the location of historic events such as the Visigothic Councils of Toledo
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Hassidic Judaism
Hasidism, sometimes Hasidic Judaism
Judaism
(Hebrew: חסידות‎, translit. hasidut, [χaˈsidus]; originally, "piety"), is a Jewish religious group. It arose as a spiritual revival movement in contemporary Western Ukraine
Western Ukraine
during the 18th century, and spread rapidly throughout Eastern Europe. Today, most affiliates reside in the United States, Israel, and the United Kingdom. Israel
Israel
Ben Eliezer, the " Baal Shem
Baal Shem
Tov", is regarded as its founding father, and his disciples developed and disseminated it. Present-day Hasidism is a sub-group within Ultra-Orthodox ("Haredi") Judaism, and is noted for its religious conservatism and social seclusion
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Lithuanian Jews
Lithuanian Jews
Jews
or Litvaks are Jews
Jews
with roots in the present-day Lithuania, Belarus, Latvia, northeastern Suwałki
Suwałki
and Białystok region of Poland
Poland
and some border areas of Russia
Russia
and Ukraine
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Levite
A Levite or Levi
Levi
(/ˈliːvaɪt/, Hebrew: לֵוִי‬, Modern Levi, Tiberian Lēwî) is a Jewish male whose descent is traced by tradition to Levi.[1] In Jewish tradition, a Levite is a member of the Israelite Tribe of Levi, descended from Levi, the third son of Jacob and Leah. As a surname, Levite status may be indicated by the term HaLevi, which consists of the Hebrew
Hebrew
prefix "ה" Ha- ("the") plus Levi
Levi
(Levite). The daughter of a Levite is a "Bat Levi" (Bat being Hebrew
Hebrew
for "daughter"). The Tribe of Levi
Tribe of Levi
served particular religious duties for the Israelites
Israelites
and had political responsibilities as well. In return, the landed tribes were expected to give tithe to support the Levites,[2] particularly the tithe known as the 'Maaser Rishon'
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Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
Europe
is the eastern part of the European continent. There is no consensus on the precise area it covers, partly because the term has a wide range of geopolitical, geographical, cultural, and socioeconomic connotations. There are "almost as many definitions of Eastern Europe
Europe
as there are scholars of the region".[1] A related United Nations
United Nations
paper adds that "every assessment of spatial identities is essentially a social and cultural construct".[2] One definition describes Eastern Europe
Europe
as a cultural entity: the region lying in Europe
Europe
with the main characteristics consisting of Greek, Byzantine, Eastern Orthodox, Russian, and some Ottoman culture influences.[3][4] Another definition was created during the Cold War and used more or less synonymously with the term Eastern Bloc
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Pale Of Settlement
The Pale
The Pale
of Settlement (Russian: Черта́ осе́длости, chertá osédlosti, Yiddish: דער תּחום-המושבֿ‎, der tkhum-ha-moyshəv, Hebrew: תְּחוּם הַמּוֹשָב‬, tẖum hammosháv) was a western region of Imperial Russia
Russia
with varying borders that existed from 1791 to 1917, in which permanent residency by Jews was allowed and beyond which Jewish permanent or temporary[1] residency was mostly forbidden. However, most Jews were excluded from residency in a number of cities within the Pale as well. A limited number of Jews were allowed to live outside the area, including those with university education, ennobled, members of the most affluent of the merchant guilds and particular artisans, some military personnel and some services associated with them, including their families, and sometimes the servants of these
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Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland
Poland
and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland
Poland
and Lithuania
Lithuania
ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland
Poland
and the Grand Duke
Duke
of Lithuania. It was one of the largest[2][3] and most populous countries of 16th- and 17th-century Europe
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Kabbalah
Kabbalah
Kabbalah
(Hebrew: קַבָּלָה‬, literally "parallel/corresponding," or "received tradition"[1][2]) is an esoteric method, discipline, and school of thought that originated in Judaism. A traditional Kabbalist in Judaism
Judaism
is called a Mekubbal (מְקוּבָּל‬). Kabbalah's definition varies according to the tradition and aims of those following it,[3] from its religious origin as an integral part of Judaism, to its later Christian, New Age, and Occultist/western esoteric syncretic adaptations. Kabbalah
Kabbalah
is a set of esoteric teachings meant to explain the relationship between an unchanging, eternal, and mysterious Ein Sof
Ein Sof
(infinity)[4] and the mortal and finite universe (God's creation). While it is heavily used by some denominations, it is not a religious denomination in itself. It forms the foundations of mystical religious interpretation
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Robert Hughes (critic)
Robert Studley Forrest Hughes AO (28 July 1938 – 6 August 2012) was an Australian-born art critic, writer, and producer of television documentaries. His best seller The Fatal Shore (1986) is a study of the British penal colonies and early history of Australia. He was described in 1997 by Robert Boynton of The New York Times
The New York Times
as "the most famous art critic in the world."[1][2] Hughes earned widespread recognition for his book and television series on Modern art, The Shock of the New, and for his longstanding position as art critic with TIME
TIME
magazine
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Lists Of Jews Associated With The Visual Arts
Jewish artists by country:Austria Britain Canada France Germany Hungary Israel Italy Poland Russia United StatesFor others see[edit]Jewish people from Scandinavia and the Baltics Jewish people from Eastern Europe Jewish people from Western Europe Jewish people
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Hasidic Judaism
Hasidism, sometimes Hasidic Judaism
Judaism
(Hebrew: חסידות‎, translit. hasidut, [χaˈsidus]; originally, "piety"), is a Jewish religious group. It arose as a spiritual revival movement in contemporary Western Ukraine
Western Ukraine
during the 18th century, and spread rapidly throughout Eastern Europe. Today, most affiliates reside in the United States, Israel, and the United Kingdom. Israel
Israel
Ben Eliezer, the " Baal Shem
Baal Shem
Tov", is regarded as its founding father, and his disciples developed and disseminated it. Present-day Hasidism is a sub-group within Ultra-Orthodox ("Haredi") Judaism, and is noted for its religious conservatism and social seclusion
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Menachem M. Schneerson
Menachem Mendel Schneerson
Menachem Mendel Schneerson
(April 18, 1902 OS – June 12, 1994 / AM 11 Nissan
11 Nissan
5662 – 3 Tammuz
3 Tammuz
5754), known to many as the Rebbe,[2][3] was a Russian Empire-born American Orthodox Jewish rabbi, and the last rebbe of the Lubavitcher Hasidic dynasty
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Hebrew
Hebrew (/ˈhiːbruː/; עִבְרִית, Ivrit [ʔivˈʁit] ( listen) or [ʕivˈɾit] ( listen)) is a Northwest Semitic language native to Israel, spoken by over 9 million people worldwide.[8][9] Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites
Israelites
and their ancestors, although the language was not referred to by the name Hebrew in the Tanakh.[note 1] The earliest examples of written Paleo-Hebrew date from the 10th century BCE.[10] Hebrew belongs to the West Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic language family
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