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Marc Chagall
MARC ZAKHAROVICH CHAGALL (/ʃəˈɡɑːl/ shə-GAHL ; born MOISHE ZAKHAROVICH SHAGALOV; 6 July 1887 – 28 March 1985) was a Russian -French artist of Belarusian Jewish origin. An early modernist , he was associated with several major artistic styles and created works in virtually every artistic format, including painting, book illustrations, stained glass, stage sets, ceramic, tapestries and fine art prints. Art critic Robert Hughes referred to Chagall as "the quintessential Jewish artist of the twentieth century" (though Chagall saw his work as "not the dream of one people but of all humanity"). According to art historian Michael J. Lewis, Chagall was considered to be "the last survivor of the first generation of European modernists"
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Spanish Empire
The SPANISH EMPIRE (Spanish : Imperio español) was one of the largest empires in history. It reached the peak of its military, political and economic power under the Spanish Habsburgs , through most of the 16th and 17th centuries, and its greatest territorial extent under the House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
in the 18th century, when it was the largest empire in the world. The Spanish Empire
Empire
became the foremost global power of its time and was the first to be called the empire on which the sun never sets . The Spanish Empire
Empire
originated during the Age of Discovery
Age of Discovery
after the voyages of Christopher Columbus
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Levite
A LEVITE (or LEVI) is a Jewish male whose descent is traced by tradition to Levi
Levi
. As a surname, Levite status may be indicated by the term HaLevi, which consists of the Hebrew
Hebrew
prefix "ה" Ha- ("the") plus Levi
Levi
(Levite). The daughter of a Levite is a "Bat Levi
Levi
" (Bat being Hebrew
Hebrew
for "daughter"). In Jewish tradition, a LEVITE (/ˈliːvaɪt/ , Hebrew
Hebrew
: לֵוִי, Modern Levi, Tiberian Lēwî; "Attached") is a member of the Israelite Tribe of Levi , descended from Levi
Levi
, the third son of Jacob and Leah
Leah
. The Tribe of Levi served particular religious duties for the Israelites and had political responsibilities as well
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Toledo, Spain
TOLEDO (Spanish: ) is a city and municipality located in central Spain, it is the capital of the province of Toledo and the autonomous community of Castile–La Mancha . It was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO
UNESCO
in 1986 for its extensive cultural and monumental heritage and historical co-existence of Christian
Christian
, Muslim
Muslim
and Jewish cultures. Toledo is known as the "Imperial City" for having been the main venue of the court of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
, and as the "City of the Three Cultures", having been influenced by a historical co-existence of Christians
Christians
, Muslims
Muslims
and Jews
Jews
. Toledo has a history in the production of bladed weapons , which are now popular souvenirs of the city
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Lithuanian Jews
LITHUANIAN JEWS or LITVAKS are Jews
Jews
with roots in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Lithuania
(present-day Lithuania
Lithuania
, Belarus
Belarus
, Ukraine
Ukraine
, Latvia
Latvia
and the northeastern Suwałki (Suvalkai) region of Poland
Poland
). The term is sometimes used to cover all Orthodox Jews
Jews
who follow a "Lithuanian" (Ashkenazic and non- Hasidic ) style of life and learning, whatever their ethnic background. The area where Lithuanian Jews
Jews
lived is referred to in Yiddish
Yiddish
as "Líta", hence the Hebrew
Hebrew
term Lita'im
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Lists Of Jews Associated With The Visual Arts
JEWISH artists by country: * Austria * Britain * Canada * France * Germany * Hungary * Israel * Italy * Poland * Russia * United States FOR OTHERS SEE * Jewish people from Scandinavia and the Baltics * Jewish people from Eastern Europe * Jewish people from Western Europe * Jewish people from Lat
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Eastern Europe
EASTERN EUROPE is the eastern part of the European continent . There is no consensus on the precise area it covers, partly because the term has a wide range of geopolitical , geographical, cultural, and socioeconomic connotations. There are "almost as many definitions of Eastern Europe
Europe
as there are scholars of the region". A related United Nations paper adds that "every assessment of spatial identities is essentially a social and cultural construct ". One definition describes Eastern Europe
Europe
as a cultural entity: the region lying in Europe
Europe
with the main characteristics consisting of Greek , Byzantine
Byzantine
, Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
, Russian , and some Ottoman culture influences. Another definition was created during the Cold War and used more or less synonymously with the term Eastern Bloc
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Pale Of Settlement
The PALE OF SETTLEMENT (Russian : Черта́ осе́длости, chertá osédlosti, Yiddish
Yiddish
: דער תּחום-המושבֿ‎, der tkhum-ha-moyshəv, Hebrew : תְּחוּם הַמּוֹשָב‎, tẖum hammosháv) was a western region of Imperial Russia
Russia
with varying borders that existed from 1791 to 1917, in which permanent residency by Jews was allowed and beyond which Jewish permanent residency was mostly forbidden. However, Jews were excluded from residency in a number of cities within the Pale, and a limited number of categories of Jews—those ennobled, with university educations or at university, members of the most affluent of the merchant guilds and particular artisans , some military personnel and some services associated with them, as well as the families, and sometimes the servants of these—were allowed to live outside it
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Polish–lithuanian Commonwealth
The POLISH–LITHUANIAN COMMONWEALTH, formally the CROWN OF THE KINGDOM OF POLAND AND THE GRAND DUCHY OF LITHUANIA, after 1791 the COMMONWEALTH OF POLAND, was a dualistic state , a bi-confederation of Poland
Poland
and Lithuania
Lithuania
ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland
Poland
and the Grand Duke
Duke
of Lithuania
Lithuania
. It was one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th- and 17th-century Europe. At its peak in the early 17th century, the Commonwealth spanned some 450,000 square miles (1,200,000 km2) and sustained a multi-ethnic population of 11 million
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Menachem M. Schneerson
MENACHEM MENDEL SCHNEERSON (April 5, 1902 OS – June 12, 1994), known to many as THE REBBE, was a Russian Empire
Russian Empire
-born American Orthodox Jewish rabbi , and the last Lubavitcher Rebbe . He is considered one of the most influential Jewish leaders of the 20th century. As leader of the Chabad- Lubavitch movement, he took an insular Hasidic group that almost came to an end with the Holocaust
Holocaust
and transformed it into one of the most influential movements in world Jewry, with an international network of over 3,000 educational and social centers. The institutions he established include kindergartens, schools, drug-rehabilitation centers, care-homes for the disabled and synagogues
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Hebrew
HEBREW (/ˈhiːbruː/ ; עִבְרִית‬, Ivrit ( listen ) or ( listen )) is a Northwest Semitic language native to Israel
Israel
, spoken by over 9 million people worldwide. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites
Israelites
and their ancestors, although the language was not referred to by the name Hebrew in the Tanakh
Tanakh
. The earliest examples of written Paleo-Hebrew date from the 10th century BCE. Hebrew belongs to the West Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic language family. Hebrew is the only living Canaanite language left, and the only truly successful example of a revived dead language . Hebrew had ceased to be an everyday spoken language somewhere between 200 and 400 CE, declining since the aftermath of the Bar Kokhba revolt . Aramaic and to a lesser extent Greek were already in use as international languages, especially among elites and immigrants
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Sholom Dovber Schneersohn
SHOLOM DOVBER SCHNEERSOHN (Hebrew : שלום דובער שניאורסאהן‎) was an Orthodox rabbi and the fifth Rebbe (spiritual leader) of the Chabad Lubavitch chasidic movement. He is also known as "THE REBBE NISHMOSEI EIDEN" (whose soul is in Eden) and as "THE REBBE RASHAB" (for Reb SHolom Ber). His teachings represent the emergence of an emphasis on outreach that later Chabad Rebbes would develop into a major theme. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Leadership * 3 Works * 4 See also * 5 Citations * 6 External links LIFEHe was born in Lubavitch , on 20 Cheshvan 1860, the second son of Shmuel Schneersohn , the fourth Chabad Rebbe. In 1882, when his father died, he was not quite 22 years old, and his brother Zalman Aharon was not much older. A period followed, during which both brothers fulfilled some of the tasks of a rebbe, but neither felt ready to take on the title and responsibilities
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Hasidic Judaism
HASIDISM, sometimes HASIDIC JUDAISM ( Hebrew
Hebrew
: חסידות‎, hasidut, Ashkenazi pronunciation : ; originally, "piety"), is a Jewish religious sect. It arose as a spiritual revival movement in contemporary Western Ukraine during the 18th century
18th century
and spread rapidly throughout Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
. Today, most affiliates reside in the United States
United States
, Israel
Israel
, and Britain . Israel
Israel
Ben Eliezer, the " Baal Shem Tov ", is regarded as its founding father, and his disciples developed and disseminated it. Present-day Hasidism is a sub-group within Ultra-Orthodox ("Haredi") Judaism
Judaism
and is noted for its religious conservatism and social seclusion
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Kabbalah
KABBALAH (Hebrew : קַבָּלָה‬, literally "parallel/corresponding," or "received tradition" ) is an esoteric method, discipline, and school of thought that originated in Judaism. A traditional Kabbalist in Judaism is called a Mekubbal (מְקוּבָּל‬). Kabbalah's definition varies according to the tradition and aims of those following it, from its religious origin as an integral part of Judaism, to its later Christian , New Age , and Occultist/western esoteric syncretic adaptations. Kabbalah
Kabbalah
is a set of esoteric teachings meant to explain the relationship between an unchanging, eternal, and mysterious Ein Sof (infinity) and the mortal and finite universe (God's creation). While it is heavily used by some denominations, it is not a religious denomination in itself. It forms the foundations of mystical religious interpretation
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Robert Hughes (critic)
ROBERT STUDLEY FORREST HUGHES AO (28 July 1938 – 6 August 2012) was an Australian-born art critic , writer, and producer of television documentaries . His best seller The Fatal Shore (1987) is a study of the British penal colonies and early history of Australia . He was described in 1997 by Robert Boynton of The New York Times
The New York Times
as "the most famous art critic in the world." Hughes earned widespread recognition for his book and television series on Modern art
Modern art
, The Shock of the New , and for his longstanding position as art critic with TIME
TIME
magazine. Known for his contentious critiques of art and artists, Hughes was generally conservative in his tastes, although he did not belong to a particular philosophical camp. Raising criticism to the level of art, his writing was noted for its power and elegance
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Saint Petersburg
SAINT PETERSBURG (Russian : Санкт-Петербу́рг, tr. Sankt-Peterburg, IPA: ( listen )) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow
Moscow
, with five million inhabitants in 2012. An important Russian port on the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
, it has a status of a federal subject (a federal city ). Situated on the Neva River , at the head of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
, it was founded by Tsar
Tsar
Peter the Great on May 27 1703. In 1914, the name was changed from Saint
Saint
Petersburg to PETROGRAD (Russian : Петрогра́д, IPA: ), in 1924 to LENINGRAD (Russian : Ленингра́д, IPA: ), and in 1991 back to Saint Petersburg. Between 1713 and 1728 and in 1732–1918, Saint
Saint
Petersburg was the capital of imperial Russia
Russia

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