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Manuel Piar
Manuel Carlos Piar (April 28, 1774 – October 16, 1817) was General-in-Chief of the army fighting Spain during the Venezuelan War of Independence.Contents1 Heritage and early life 2 Military career 3 Downfall, trial and execution 4 See also 5 ReferencesHeritage and early life[edit] The son of Fernando Alonso Piar y Lottyn, a Spanish merchant seaman of Canarian origin [1] and María Isabel Gómez, a Dutch mulatta born to an Afro-Venezuelan father & Dutch mother in Willemstad, Curaçao, Piar grew up as a humble mestizo subject to the discriminating limits imposed by the social norms of colonial times. He arrived in Venezuela
Venezuela
with his mother when he was ten years old and set up residence in La Guaira
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Willemstad
Willemstad
Willemstad
(/ˈwɪləmˌstɑːt/; Dutch pronunciation: [ˈʋɪləmstɑt]) is the capital city of Curaçao, an island in the southern Caribbean Sea
Caribbean Sea
that forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Formerly the capital of the Netherlands
Netherlands
Antilles prior to its dissolution in 2010, it has an estimated population of 150,000. The historic centre of the city consists of four quarters: the Punda and Otrobanda, which are separated by the Sint Anna Bay, an inlet that leads into the large natural harbour called the Schottegat, as well as the Scharloo and Pietermaai Smal quarters, which are across from each other on the smaller Waaigat harbour. Willemstad
Willemstad
is home to the Curaçao
Curaçao
synagogue, the oldest surviving synagogue in the Americas
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Barcelona, Anzoátegui
Barcelona
Barcelona
is the capital of Anzoátegui
Anzoátegui
State, Venezuela
Venezuela
and was founded in 1671
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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Court Martial
A court-martial or court martial (plural courts-martial or courts martial, as "martial" is a postpositive adjective) is a military court or a trial conducted in such a court. A court-martial is empowered to determine the guilt of members of the armed forces subject to military law, and, if the defendant is found guilty, to decide upon punishment. In addition, courts-martial may be used to try prisoners of war for war crimes. The Geneva Convention requires that POWs who are on trial for war crimes be subject to the same procedures as would be the holding military's own forces. Finally, courts-martial can be convened for other purposes, such as dealing with violations of martial law, and can involve civilian defendants.[1][2] Most navies have a standard court-martial which convenes whenever a ship is lost; this does not presume that the captain is suspected of wrongdoing, but merely that the circumstances surrounding the loss of the ship be made part of the official record
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José Francisco Bermúdez
José Francisco Bermúdez (23 January 1782, Cariaco – 15 December 1831, Cumaná) was a Venezuelan who fought in the Venezuelan War of Independence, reaching the rank of General. He is buried in the National Pantheon of Venezuela.[1][2][3] A municipality (Bermúdez Municipality) and an airport (General José Francisco Bermúdez Airport), both in his native Sucre State, are named in his honour. References[edit]^ Pérez Tenreiro, Tomas. (1968): Los Generales en jefe de la independencia (rasgos biográficos). Ministerio de la Defensa. Caracas. ^ Romero Martínez, Vinicio. (1987): Mis mejores amigos. 110 biografías de venezolanos ilustres. Editorial Larense, C.A. Caracas. 188p. ISBN 980-211-120-1 ^ Hernández Caballero, Serafín (Editor). 1998: Gran Enciclopedia de Venezuela. Editorial Globe, C.A. Caracas
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José Félix Ribas
José Félix Ribas (Spanish pronunciation: [xoˈse ˈfeliks ˈriβas]; Caracas, 19 September 1775 – Tucupido, 31 January 1815), was a Venezuelan independence leader and hero of the Venezuelan War of Independence.Contents1 Early life 2 Military career 3 Capture and death after Urica and Maturín 4 Legacy 5 See also 6 ReferencesEarly life[edit] Ribas was the last of eleven sons, born to a prominent Caracas family. In his early years, he received a quality education and attended the city's seminary. After finishing his studies, he began working in the agrarian sector. At the age of 21 he married María Josefa Palacios, the aunt of Simón Bolívar. He soon became interested in Republican ideals and sympathetic to the revolutionary independence movement. Ribas became involved in the Conspiracy of 1808, but was taken prisoner after its failure
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Simón Bolívar
Simón José Antonio de la Santísima Trinidad de Bolívar y Palacios[1] (Spanish: [siˈmon boˈliβar] ( listen);[2] 24 July 1783 – 17 December 1830), generally known as Simón Bolívar
Simón Bolívar
and also colloquially as El Libertador,[3] was a Venezuelan military and political leader who played a leading role in the establishment of Venezuela, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Panama
Panama
as sovereign states, independent of Spanish rule. Bolívar was born into a wealthy, aristocratic Creole family and, as was common for the heirs of upper-class families in his day, was sent to be educated abroad at a young age, arriving in Spain
Spain
when he was 16 and later moving to France. While in Europe, he was introduced to the ideas of the Enlightenment, which later motivated him to overthrow the reigning Spanish in colonial South America
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Creole Peoples
Creole peoples (and its cognates in other languages such as crioulo, criollo, creolo, créole, kriolu, criol, kreyol, kreol, kriol, krio, kriyoyo, etc.) are ethnic groups which originated from creolisation, linguistic, cultural and racial mixing between colonial-era emigrants from Europe with non-European peoples, climates and cuisines. Typically, they are partially or fully descended from White European colonial settlers, native american and Africans. The development of creole languages is attributed to, but independent of, the emergence of creole ethnic identities.Contents1 Etymology and overview 2 United States2.1 Alaska 2.2 Chesapeake Colonies 2.3 Louisiana 2.4 Texas3 Africa3.1 Portuguese Africa4 Brazil 5 Former Spanish colonies5.1 Spanish America 5.2 Spanish Philippines6 Caribbean


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Guayana Region
The Guayana Region
Guayana Region
is an administrative region of eastern Venezuela.Contents1 Geography1.1 States2 See also 3 ReferencesGeography[edit] The region has a population of 1,383,297 inhabitants and a territory of 458,344 km2, slightly over half the area of the whole country. During the colonial period, it was known as Spanish Guiana
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Francisco Tomás Morales
Francisco Tomás Morales (Agüimes Carrizal, Canary Islands, December 20, 1781 or 1783 – Las Palmas, Canary Islands, October 5, 1845), was a Spanish military, and the last of that country to hold the post of Captain General of Venezuela, reaching the rank of field marshal during the Venezuelan War of Independence. As recounted in a series of letters distributed by the Philadelphia Gazette,[1] in 1822 General Morales issued a decree widely interpreted by the American merchants then in Caracas, La Guaira
La Guaira
and Puerto Cabello as a threat. The Americans solicited the help of Capt. Robert T. Spence, whose frigate, the Cyane was in the area, to delay his departure for Africa (on piracy duty) to protect them from Morales. Spence complied for several days in October 1822, much to the relief of the Americans, at least briefly. Morales conceded defeat after the Battle of Lake Maracaibo
Maracaibo
in July 1823
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Major General
Major
Major
general (abbreviated MG,[1] Maj. Gen. and similar) is a military rank used in many countries. It is derived from the older rank of sergeant major general. The disappearance of the "sergeant" in the title explains the apparently confusing phenomenon whereby a lieutenant general outranks a major general. (Although a major outranks a lieutenant, a lieutenant outranks a sergeant-major). In the Commonwealth
Commonwealth
and the United States, it is a division commander's rank subordinate to the rank of lieutenant general and senior to the ranks of brigadier and brigadier general
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José Tomás Boves
José Tomás Boves (Oviedo, Asturias, September 18, 1782 – Urica, Venezuela, December 5, 1814), was a royalist caudillo of the llanos during the Venezuelan War of Independence, particularly remembered for his use of brutality and atrocities against those who supported Venezuelan independence. Though nominally pro-Spanish, Boves showed little deference to any superior authority and independently carried out his own military campaign and political agenda.Contents1 Early life 2 Military campaigns 3 Boves in fiction 4 See also 5 References 6 SourcesEarly life[edit] Having lost his father at age 4, he was raised by his single mother, who worked as a seamstress and maid. At the age of 16 Boves was licensed to be a pilot in the merchant marine, later joining the Pla y Portal company, which traded between Spain and the Americas
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Cumaná
Cumaná
Cumaná
(Spanish pronunciation: [kumaˈna]) is the capital of Venezuela's Sucre State. It is located 402 kilometres (250 mi) east of Caracas. Cumaná
Cumaná
was one of the first settlements founded by Europeans in mainland America and is the oldest continuously-inhabited, European-established settlement in the continent. Attacks by indigenous peoples meant it had to be refounded several times. The municipality of Sucre, which includes Cumaná, had a population of 358,919 at the 2011 Census; the latest estimate (as at mid 2016) is 423,546.[1] The city, located at the mouth of the Manzanares River on the Caribbean
Caribbean
coast in the Northeast coast of Venezuela, is home to one of five campuses of the Universidad de Oriente and a busy maritime port, home of one of the largest tuna fleets in Venezuela
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Caracas
Caracas
Caracas
(Spanish pronunciation: [kaˈɾakas]; locally [kaˈɾaːka]), officially Santiago
Santiago
de León de Caracas, is the capital, the center of the Greater Caracas
Greater Caracas
Area, and the largest city of Venezuela. Caracas
Caracas
is located along the Guaire River in the northern part of the country, following the contours of the narrow Caracas
Caracas
Valley on the Venezuelan coastal mountain range (Cordillera de la Costa). Terrain suitable for building lies between 760 and 1,140 m (2,490 and 3,740 ft) above sea level, although there is some settlement above this range
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