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Manhattan Project
The Manhattan Project
Manhattan Project
was a research and development undertaking during World War II
World War II
that produced the first nuclear weapons. It was led by the United States
United States
with the support of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Canada. From 1942 to 1946, the project was under the direction of Major General Leslie Groves
Leslie Groves
of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Nuclear physicist Robert Oppenheimer
Robert Oppenheimer
was the director of the Los Alamos Laboratory that designed the actual bombs. The Army component of the project was designated the Manhattan District; "Manhattan" gradually superseded the official codename, Development of Substitute Materials, for the entire project. Along the way, the project absorbed its earlier British counterpart, Tube Alloys
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Radiology
Radiology
Radiology
is the science that uses medical imaging to diagnose and sometimes also treat diseases within the body. A variety of imaging techniques such as X-ray
X-ray
radiography, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), nuclear medicine including positron emission tomography (PET), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are used to diagnose and/or treat diseases. Interventional radiology
Interventional radiology
is the performance of (usually minimally invasive) medical procedures with the guidance of imaging technologies. The acquisition of medical images is usually carried out by the radiographer, often known as a Radiologic Technologist. The Diagnostic Radiologist, a specially trained doctor, then interprets or "reads" the images and produces a report of their findings and impression or diagnosis. In some places, a Reporting Radiographer, a radiographer with advanced training, may also interpret basic images
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United Kingdom
The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(UK) or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe
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Uranium-235
Uranium
Uranium
metal highly enriched in uranium-235 Complete table of nuclidesGeneralName, symbol Uranium-235, 235UNeutrons 143Protons 92Nuclide dataNatural abundance 0.72%Half-life 703,800,000 yearsParent isotopes 235Pa 235Np 239PuDecay products 231ThIsotope mass 235.0439299 uSpin 7/2−Excess energy 40914.062 ± 1.970 keVBinding energy 1783870.285 ± 1.996 keVDecay mode Decay energyAlpha 4.679 MeV Uranium-235
Uranium-235
(235U) is an isotope of uranium making up about 0.72% of natural uranium. Unlike the predominant isotope uranium-238, it is fissile, i.e., it can sustain a fission chain reaction. It is the only fissile isotope with a primordial nuclide found in significant quantity in nature. Uranium-235
Uranium-235
has a half-life of 703.8 million years. It was discovered in 1935 by Arthur Jeffrey Dempster
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Thermophoresis
Thermophoresis (also thermomigration, thermodiffusion, the Soret effect, or the Ludwig–Soret effect) is a phenomenon observed in mixtures of mobile particles where the different particle types exhibit different responses to the force of a temperature gradient. The term thermophoresis most often applies to aerosol mixtures, but may also commonly refer to the phenomenon in all phases of matter. The term Soret effect normally applies to liquid mixtures, which behave according to different, less well-understood mechanisms than gaseous mixtures. Thermophoresis may not apply to thermomigration in solids, especially multi-phase alloys.[citation needed]Contents1 Thermophoretic force 2 Applications 3 History 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksThermophoretic force[edit] The phenomenon is observed at the scale of one millimeter or less
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Fissile Material
In nuclear engineering, fissile material is material capable of sustaining a nuclear fission chain reaction. By definition, fissile material can sustain a chain reaction with neutrons of any energy. The predominant neutron energy may be typified by either slow neutrons (i.e., a thermal system) or fast neutrons
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Nuclear Transmutation
Nuclear transmutation
Nuclear transmutation
is the conversion of one chemical element or an isotope into another chemical element.[1] Because any element (or isotope of one) is defined by its number of protons (and neutrons) in its atoms, i.e. in the atomic nucleus, nuclear transmutation occurs in any process where the number of protons or neutrons in the nucleus is changed. A transmutation can be achieved either by nuclear reactions (in which an outside particle reacts with a nucleus) or by radioactive decay, where no outside cause is needed. Natural transmutation by stellar nucleosynthesis in the past created most of the heavier chemical elements in the known existing universe, and continues to take place to this day, creating the vast majority of the most common elements in the universe, including helium, oxygen and carbon
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Major General (United States)
In the United States Army, United States Marine Corps, and United States Air Force, major general is a two-star general-officer rank, with the pay grade of O-8. Major general ranks above brigadier general and below lieutenant general.[1][Note 1] A major general typically commands division-sized units of 10,000 to 15,000 soldiers. Major general is equivalent to the two-star rank of rear admiral in the United States Navy
United States Navy
and United States Coast Guard
United States Coast Guard
and is the highest permanent rank during peacetime in the uniformed services. Higher ranks are technically temporary ranks linked to specific positions, although virtually all officers who have been promoted to those ranks are approved to retire at their highest earned rank.Contents1 Statutory limits 2 Promotion, appointment, and tour length 3 Retirement 4 History4.1 U.S. Army 4.2 Confederate States Army 4.3 U.S. Marine Corps 4.4 U.S
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Uranium-238
10 gram sample Complete table of nuclidesGeneralName, symbol Uranium-238, 238UNeutrons 146Protons 92Nuclide dataNatural abundance 99.2745%Half-life 4.468 billion yearsParent isotopes 242Pu (α) 238Pa (β−)Decay products 234ThIsotope mass 238.05078826 uSpin 0Decay mode Decay energyAlpha decay 4.267 MeV Uranium-238
Uranium-238
(238U or U-238) is the most common isotope of uranium found in nature, with a relative abundance of 99%. Unlike uranium-235, it is non-fissile, which means it cannot sustain a chain reaction. However, it is fissionable by fast neutrons, and is fertile, meaning it can be transmuted to fissile plutonium-239. 238U cannot support a chain reaction because inelastic scattering reduces neutron energy below the range where fast fission of one or more next-generation nuclei is probable
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Canada
Coordinates: 60°N 95°W / 60°N 95°W / 60; -95CanadaFlagMotto: A Mari Usque Ad Mare  (Latin) (English: "From Sea to Sea")Anthem: "O Canada"Royal anthem: "God Save the Queen"[1]Capital Ottawa 45°24′N 75°40′W / 45.400°N 75.667°W / 45.400; -75.667Largest city TorontoOfficial languagesEnglish FrenchEthnic groupsList of ethnicities74.3% European 14.5% Asian 5.1% Indigenous 3.4% Caribbean and Latin American 2.9% African 0.2% Oceanian[2]ReligionList of religions67.2% Christianity 23.9% Non-religious 3.2% Islam 1.5% Hinduism 1.4% Sikhism 1.1% Buddhism 1.0% Judaism 0.6% Other -[3]Demonym CanadianGovernment Federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy[4]• MonarchElizabeth II• Governor GeneralJulie Payette• Prime MinisterJustin Trudeau• Chie
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Occupation Of Japan
A job, or occupation, is a person's role in society. More specifically, a job is an activity, often regular and often performed in exchange for payment ("for a living"). Many people have multiple jobs (e.g., parent, homemaker, and employee). A person can begin a job by becoming an employee, volunteering, starting a business, or becoming a parent. The duration of a job may range from temporary (e.g., hourly odd jobs) to a lifetime (e.g., judges). An activity that requires a person's mental or physical effort is work (as in "a day's work"). If a person is trained for a certain type of job, they may have a profession. Typically, a job would be a subset of someone's career
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Bikini Atoll
Bikini
Bikini
Atoll
Atoll
(pronounced /ˈbɪkɪˌniː/ or /bɪˈkiːni/; Marshallese: 'Pikinni', [pʲi͡ɯɡɯ͡inʲːii̯], meaning coconut place)[2] is an atoll in the Marshall Islands
Marshall Islands
which consists of 23 islands totalling 3.4 square miles (8.8 km2) surrounding a 229.4-square-mile (594.1 km2) central lagoon. It is at the northern end of the Ralik Chain, approximately 87 kilometres (54 mi) northwest of Ailinginae Atoll
Atoll
and 850 kilometres (530 mi) northwest of Majuro. Within Bikini
Bikini
Atoll, Bikini, Eneu, Namu, and Enidrik islands comprise just over 70% of the land area. Bikini
Bikini
and Eneu are the only islands of the atoll that hosted a permanent population. Bikini
Bikini
Island is the northeastern most and largest islet
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Gun-type Fission Weapon
Gun-type fission weapons are fission-based nuclear weapons whose design assembles their fissile material into a supercritical mass by the use of the "gun" method: shooting one piece of sub-critical material into another. Although this is sometimes pictured as two sub-critical hemispheres driven together to make a supercritical sphere, typically a hollow projectile is shot onto a spike which fills the hole in its center. Its name is a reference to the fact that it is shooting the material through an artillery barrel as if it were a projectile. Other potential arrangements may include firing two pieces into each other simultaneously, though whether this approach has been used in actual weapons designs is unknown. Since it is a relatively slow method of assembly, plutonium cannot be used unless it is purely the 239 isotope. Production of impurity-free plutonium is very difficult and is impractical
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Allied Invasion Of Italy
The Allied invasion of Italy
Italy
was the Allied amphibious landing on mainland Italy
Italy
that took place on 3 September 1943 during the early stages of the Italian Campaign of World War II. The operation was undertaken by General Sir Harold Alexander's 15th Army Group (comprising General Mark W. Clark
Mark W

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Implosion-type Nuclear Weapon
Nuclear weapon designs are physical, chemical, and engineering arrangements that cause the physics package[1] of a nuclear weapon to detonate. There are three existing basic design types. In many existing designs, the explosive energy of deployed devices is derived primarily from nuclear fission, not fusion. (This includes fission of any U-238 tamper or casing due to fusion produced neutrons.)Pure fission weapons were the first nuclear weapons built and have so far been the only type ever used in warfare
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United States Department Of Energy National Laboratories
The United States Department of Energy
United States Department of Energy
National Laboratories and Technology Centers are a system of facilities and laboratories overseen by the United States Department of Energy
United States Department of Energy
(DOE) for the purpose of advancing science and technology to fulfill the DOE mission
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