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Mangosuthu Buthelezi
MANGOSUTHU BUTHELEZI (born 27 August 1928) is a South African politician and Zulu tribal leader who founded the Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) in 1975 and was Chief Minister of the KwaZulu bantustan until 1994. He was Minister of Home Affairs of South Africa from 1994 to 2004. His praise name is SHENGE. Throughout much of the apartheid area, Buthelezi was considered one of the foremost black leaders. He played a key role in creating a framework for a negotiated solution to South Africa's racial conflict, signing the landmark Mahlabatini Declaration of Faith in 1974 with Harry Schwarz . During the CODESA negotiations of the early 1990s, he represented the IFP. Following the introduction of the universal franchise in the 1994 general election, Buthelezi led the IFP to join the government of national unity, led by Nelson Mandela . Buthelezi served as Minister of Home Affairs until 2004
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1956 Treason Trial
The TREASON TRIAL was a trial in which 156 people, including Nelson Mandela , were arrested in a raid and accused of treason in South Africa in 1956. The main trial lasted until 1961, when all of the defendants were found not guilty. During the trials, Oliver Tambo left the country and was exiled. Whilst in other European and African countries he started an organisation which helped bring publicity to the African National Congress 's cause in South Africa. Some of the defendants were later convicted in the Rivonia Trial in 1964. Chief Luthuli has said of the Treason Trial: The treason trial must occupy a special place in South African history
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Sharpeville Massacre
The SHARPEVILLE MASSACRE was an event which occurred on 21 March 1960, at the police station in the South African township of Sharpeville in Transvaal (today part of Gauteng ). After a day of demonstrations against pass laws , a crowd of about 5,000 to 7,000 protesters went to the police station. The South African Police opened fire on the crowd, killing 69 people. Sources disagree as to the behaviour of the crowd; some state that the crowd was peaceful, while others state that the crowd had been hurling stones at the police, and that the shooting started when the crowd started advancing toward the fence around the police station. There were 289 casualties in total, including 29 children. Many sustained back injuries from being shot as they fled. In present-day South Africa, 21 March is celebrated as a public holiday in honour of human rights and to commemorate the Sharpeville massacre
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Rivonia Trial
The RIVONIA TRIAL took place in South Africa between 9 October 1963 and 12 June 1964. The Rivonia Trial led to the imprisonment of Nelson Mandela and the others among the accused who were convicted of sabotage and sentenced to life at the Palace of Justice, Pretoria . CONTENTS * 1 Origins * 2 Arrests * 3 List of defendants * 4 Defence lawyers * 5 Charges * 6 Escapes * 7 Mandela\'s speech * 8 Results * 9 See also * 10 Notes * 11 References * 11.1 Monographs * 11.2 Journal articles * 11.3 Newspaper articles * 11.4 Websites * 12 External links ORIGINSThe Rivonia Trial was named after Rivonia , the suburb of Johannesburg where leaders had been arrested (and documents discovered) at Liliesleaf Farm , privately owned by Arthur Goldreich , on 11 July 1963
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Soweto Uprising
The SOWETO UPRISING was a series of demonstrations and protests led by black school children in South Africa that began on the morning of 16 June 1976. Students from numerous Sowetan schools began to protest in the streets of Soweto in response to the introduction of Afrikaans as the medium of instruction in local schools. It is estimated that 20,000 students took part in the protests. They were met with fierce police brutality . The number of protesters killed by police is usually given as 176, but estimates of up to 700 have been made. In remembrance of these events, the 16th of June is now a public holiday in South Africa, named Youth Day
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Coloured Vote Constitutional Crisis
The COLOURED VOTE CONSTITUTIONAL CRISIS, also known as the COLOURED VOTE CASE, was a constitutional crisis that occurred in the Union of South Africa during the 1950s as the result of an attempt by the Nationalist government to remove Coloured voters in the Union's Cape Province from the common voters\' rolls . It developed into a dispute between Parliament and the executive, on the one hand, and the Appellate Division of the Supreme Court , on the other hand, over the power of Parliament to amend an entrenched clause in the South Africa Act (the constitution ) and the power of the Appellate Division to overturn the amendment as unconstitutional. The crisis ended when the government enlarged the Senate and altered its method of election, allowing the amendment to be successfully enacted
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South African General Election, 1948
Jan Smuts United ELECTED PRIME MINISTER D. F. Malan Reunited National This article NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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Robert Mugabe
ROBERT GABRIEL MUGABE (/muːˈɡɑːbiː/ ; Shona pronunciation: ; born 21 February 1924) is a Zimbabwean revolutionary and politician who has been President of Zimbabwe since 1987; he previously led Zimbabwe as Prime Minister from 1980 to 1987. He chaired the Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU) group from 1975 to 1980 and has led its successor political party, the ZANU - Patriotic Front (ZANU–PF), since 1980. Ideologically an African nationalist , during the 1970s and 1980s he identified as a Marxist-Leninist although after the 1990s self-identified only as a socialist ; his policies have been described as Mugabeism. Mugabe was born to a poor Shona family in Kutama , Southern Rhodesia . Following an education at Kutama College and the University of Fort Hare , he worked as a school teacher in Southern Rhodesia, Northern Rhodesia , and Ghana
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University Of Natal
The UNIVERSITY OF NATAL was a university in Natal and later became KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa . The University of Natal no longer exists as a distinct legal entity, as it was incorporated into the University of KwaZulu-Natal on 1 January 2004. It was founded in 1910 as the Natal University College in Pietermaritzburg and expanded to include a campus in Durban in 1931. In 1947, the university opened a medical school for non-white students in Durban. The Pietermaritzburg campus was known for its agricultural engineering programmes, hence the nickname "the farmers" whilst the Durban campus was known as "the engineers," as it concentrated on other engineering programmes. Brenda Gourley , a qualified chartered accountant , was the second last vice-chancellor of the University of Natal. Her appointment at the university in 1994 was an historical event in South Africa
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Black Consciousness Movement
The BLACK CONSCIOUSNESS MOVEMENT (BCM) was a grassroots anti- Apartheid activist movement that emerged in South Africa in the mid-1960s out of the political vacuum created by the jailing and banning of the African National Congress and Pan Africanist Congress leadership after the Sharpeville Massacre in 1960. The BCM represented a social movement for political consciousness . origins were deeply rooted in Christianity. In 1966, the Anglican Church under the incumbent, Archbishop Robert Selby Taylor , convened a meeting which later on led to the foundation of the University Christian Movement (UCM). This was to become the vehicle for Black Consciousness. The BCM attacked what they saw as traditional white values, especially the "condescending" values of white people of liberal opinion
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Church Street Bombing
The CHURCH STREET BOMBING was a car bomb attack on 20 May 1983 in the South African capital Pretoria by Umkhonto we Sizwe , the military wing of the African National Congress . The bombing killed 19, including two perpetrators, and wounded 217, and was one of the most deadly attacks engaged in by the ANC during its armed struggle. The attack consisted of a car bomb set off outside the Nedbank Square Building, which was shared between Nedbank and the Dutch embassy , on Church Street at 4:30 pm on a Friday. The target was South African Air Force (SAAF) headquarters, but as the bomb was set to go off at the height of rush hour, those killed and wounded included civilians. The bomb went off ten minutes earlier than planned, killing two of the perpetrators, Freddie Shangwe and Ezekial Maseko. At least 20 ambulances took the dead and wounded to hospitals
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Cape Town Peace March
On 13 September 1989, 30 000 Capetonians from a diverse cross-section of the city marched in support of peace and the end of apartheid . The event, led by Mayor Gordon Oliver , Archbishop Tutu , Rev Frank Chikane , Moulana Farid Esack , Allan Boesak , and other religious leaders, was held in defiance of the State of Emergency which banned political protests and apartheid laws which enforced racial segregation. The march resulted in concessions from the apartheid cabinet headed by FW de Klerk , following years of violent clashes between anti-apartheid protestors and the police, and was the first such event to include elected world government functionaries. It was considered the "last illegal march" at the time, and went ahead without major confrontation. The size of the protest, despite the open defiance, and the restrained response from the police signalled the beginning of the transition to democracy
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Civil Cooperation Bureau
The South African CIVIL COOPERATION BUREAU (CCB) was a government-sponsored death squad during the apartheid era that operated under the authority of Defence Minister General Magnus Malan . The Truth and Reconciliation Committee pronounced the CCB guilty of numerous killings, and suspected more killings
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Conservative Party Of South Africa
The CONSERVATIVE PARTY OF SOUTH AFRICA (KONSERWATIEWE PARTY VAN SUID-AFRIKA in Afrikaans ) was a hard right party that wished to conserve many aspects of apartheid in the system's final decade, and formed the official opposition in the white-only House of Assembly in the last seven years of minority rule. It declined quickly after apartheid ended, before being merged with the Freedom Front in 2004
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Democratic Party (South Africa)
The DEMOCRATIC PARTY (DP) was the name of the South African political party now called the Democratic Alliance . Although the Democratic Party name dates from 1989, the party existed under other labels throughout the apartheid years, when it was the Parliamentary opposition to the ruling National Party 's policies. CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 History * 3 Election results * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links BACKGROUNDThe Progressive Federal Party had formed the main parliamentary opposition to the Apartheid regime in the whites-only House of Assembly since 1977. But the party was ousted as the official opposition in the 1987 election and pushed into third place behind the far-right Conservative Party, which opposed even the limited reforms the NP had recently implemented
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