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Mandriva Linux
Mandriva
Mandriva
Linux (a fusion of the French distribution Mandrakelinux or Mandrake Linux and the Brazilian distribution Conectiva Linux) was a Linux distribution
Linux distribution
by Mandriva. It used urpmi. Each release lifetime was 18 months for base updates (Linux, system software, etc.) and 12 months for desktop updates (window managers, desktop environments, web browsers, etc.). Server products received full updates for at least 5 years after their release.[2] The last release of Mandriva
Mandriva
Linux was in August 2011
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Software Developer
A software developer is a person concerned with facets of the software development process, including the research, design, programming, and testing of computer software. Other job titles which are often used with similar meanings are programmer, software analyst, and software engineer. According to developer Eric Sink, the differences between system design, software development, and programming are more apparent. Already in the current market place there can be found a segregation between programmers and developers, being that one who implements is not the same as the one who designs the class structure or hierarchy. Even more so that developers become software architects or systems architects, those who design the multi-leveled architecture or component interactions of a large software system.[1] In a large company, there may be employees whose sole responsibility consists of only one of the phases above
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Linux (kernel)
The Linux
Linux
kernel is an open-source monolithic Unix-like
Unix-like
computer operating system kernel. The Linux
Linux
family of operating systems is based on this kernel and deployed on both traditional computer systems such as personal computers and servers, usually in the form of Linux distributions,[9] and on various embedded devices such as routers, wireless access points, PBXes, set-top boxes, FTA receivers, smart TVs, PVRs, and NAS appliances. The Android operating system for tablet computers, smartphones, and smartwatches uses services provided by the Linux
Linux
kernel to implement its functionality. While the adoption on desktop computers is low, Linux-based operating systems dominate nearly every other segment of computing, from mobile devices to mainframes
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Linux Kernel
The Linux
Linux
kernel is an open-source monolithic Unix-like
Unix-like
computer operating system kernel. The Linux
Linux
family of operating systems is based on this kernel and deployed on both traditional computer systems such as personal computers and servers, usually in the form of Linux distributions,[9] and on various embedded devices such as routers, wireless access points, PBXes, set-top boxes, FTA receivers, smart TVs, PVRs, and NAS appliances. The Android operating system for tablet computers, smartphones, and smartwatches uses services provided by the Linux
Linux
kernel to implement its functionality. While the adoption on desktop computers is low, Linux-based operating systems dominate nearly every other segment of computing, from mobile devices to mainframes
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GNU Core Utilities
The GNU
GNU
Core Utilities or coreutils is a package of GNU
GNU
software containing reimplementations for many of the basic tools, such as cat, ls, and rm, used on Unix-like
Unix-like
operating systems.Contents1 History 2 Capabilities 3 Alternatives 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit] In September 2002 the GNU
GNU
coreutils were created by merging the earlier packages textutils, shellutils, and fileutils, along with some other miscellaneous utilities.[2] In July 2007 the license of the GNU coreutils was updated from GPLv2 to GPLv3.[3] Capabilities[edit] The GNU
GNU
core utilities support long options as parameters to the commands, as well as (unless the POSIXLY_CORRECT environment variable is set) the relaxed convention allowing options even after the regular arguments
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User Interface
The user interface (UI), in the industrial design field of human–computer interaction, is the space where interactions between humans and machines occur. The goal of this interaction is to allow effective operation and control of the machine from the human end, whilst the machine simultaneously feeds back information that aids the operators' decision-making process. Examples of this broad concept of user interfaces include the interactive aspects of computer operating systems, hand tools, heavy machinery operator controls, and process controls. The design considerations applicable when creating user interfaces are related to or involve such disciplines as ergonomics and psychology. Generally, the goal of user interface design is to produce a user interface which makes it easy (self-explanatory), efficient, and enjoyable (user-friendly) to operate a machine in the way which produces the desired result
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KDE Plasma Desktop
KDE
KDE
(/ˌkeɪdiːˈiː/) is an international free software community[1] that develops Free and Open Source based software. Well-known products include the Plasma Desktop, KDE Frameworks and a range of cross-platform applications designed to run on Unix-like
Unix-like
desktops, Microsoft Windows
Microsoft Windows
and Android. It further provides tools and documentation for developers that enables them to write software
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Software License
A software license is a legal instrument (usually by way of contract law, with or without printed material) governing the use or redistribution of software. Under United States copyright law all software is copyright protected, in source code as also object code form.[2] The only exception is software in the public domain. A typical software license grants the licensee, typically an end-user, permission to use one or more copies of software in ways where such a use would otherwise potentially constitute copyright infringement of the software owner's exclusive rights under copyright law.Contents1 Software
Software
licenses and copyright law1.1 Ownership vs
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Free Software
Free software
Free software
or libre software[1][2] is computer software distributed under terms that allow users to run the software for any purpose as well as to study, change, and distribute it and any adapted versions.[3][4][5][6][7] Free software
Free software
is a matter of liberty, not price: users —individually or in cooperation with computer programmers— are free to do what they want with their copies of a free software (including profiting from them) regardless of how much is paid to obtain the program.[8][2] Computer programs are deemed free insofar as they give users (not just the developer) ultimate control over the first, thereby allowing them to control what their devices are programmed to do.[5][9] The right to study and modify a computer program entails that source code —the preferred format for making changes— be made available to users of that program
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Binary Blob
In the context of free and open-source software, a binary blob is a closed-source binary-only piece of software. The term usually refers to a closed-source kernel module loaded into the kernel of an open-source operating system, and is sometimes also applied to code running outside the kernel, such as system firmware images, microcode updates, or userland programs.[1][2][3][4][5] The term blob was first used in database management systems to describe a collection of binary data stored as a single entity. When computer hardware vendors provide complete technical documentation for their products, operating system developers are able to write hardware device drivers to be included in the operating system kernels
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Wayback Machine
The Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
is a digital archive of the World Wide Web
World Wide Web
and other information on the Internet
Internet
created by the Internet
Internet
Archive, a nonprofit organization, based in San Francisco, California, United States.Contents1 History 2 Technical details2.1 Storage capabilities 2.2 Growth 2.3 Website exclusion policy2.3.1 Oakland Archive
Archive
Policy3 Uses3.1 In legal evidence3.1.1 Civil litigation3.1.1.1 Netbula LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. 3.1.1.2 Telewizja Polska3.1.2 Patent law 3.1.3 Limitations of utility4 Legal status 5 Archived content legal issues5.1 Scientology 5.2 Healthcare Advocates, Inc. 5.3 Suzanne Shell 5.4 Daniel Davydiuk6 Censorship and other threats 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksHistory[edit]This section needs additional citations for verification
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System Software
System software, or systems software, is computer software designed to provide a platform to other software.[1] Examples of system software include operating systems, computational science software, game engines, industrial automation, and software as a service applications.[2] In contrast to system software, software that allows users to do things like create text documents, play games, listen to music, or surf the web is called application software.[3] In the early days of computing most application software was custom-written by computer users to fit their specific hardware and requirements. In contrast, system software was usually supplied by the manufacturer of the computer hardware and was intended to be used by most or all users of that system. The line where the distinction should be drawn is not always clear. Many operating systems bundle application software
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Xbox (console)
The Xbox
Xbox
is a home video game console and the first installment in the Xbox
Xbox
series of consoles manufactured by Microsoft. It was released on November 15, 2001 in North America, followed by Australia, Europe
Europe
and Japan
Japan
in 2002.[2] It was Microsoft's first foray into the gaming console market. It is a sixth generation console, and competed with Sony's PlayStation 2
PlayStation 2
and Nintendo's GameCube. It was also the first console produced by an American company since the Atari Jaguar
Atari Jaguar
ceased production in 1996. Announced in 2000, the Xbox, graphically powerful compared to its rivals, featured a standard PC's 733 MHz Intel Pentium III processor
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Window Managers
A window manager is system software that controls the placement and appearance of windows within a windowing system in a graphical user interface.[1] Most window managers are designed to help provide a desktop environment. They work in conjunction with the underlying graphical system that provides required functionality—support for graphics hardware, pointing devices, and a keyboard, and are often written and created using a widget toolkit. Few window managers are designed with a clear distinction between the windowing system and the window manager. Every graphical user interface based on a windows metaphor has some form of window management. In practice, the elements of this functionality vary greatly.[2] Elements usually associated with window managers allow the user to open, close, minimize, maximize, move, resize, and keep track of running windows, including window decorators. Many window managers also come with various utilities and features: e.g
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Desktop Environments
In computing, a desktop environment (DE) is an implementation of the desktop metaphor made of a bundle of programs running on top of a computer operating system, which share a common graphical user interface (GUI), sometimes described as a graphical shell. The desktop environment was seen mostly on personal computers until the rise of mobile computing.[1][2] Desktop GUIs help the user to easily access and edit files, while they usually do not provide access to all of the features found in the underlying operating system. Instead, the traditional command-line interface (CLI) is still used when full control over the operating system is required. A desktop environment typically consists of icons, windows, toolbars, folders, wallpapers and desktop widgets (see Elements of graphical user interfaces and WIMP).[3] A GUI might also provide drag and drop functionality and other features that make the desktop metaphor more complete
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Web Browsers
A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is a software application for retrieving, presenting and traversing information resources on the World Wide Web
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