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Mandolins
String instrument Plucked string instrument Hornbostel–Sachs classification 321.321-6 (Neapolitan) or 321.322-6 (flat-backed) ( Chordophone
Chordophone
with permanently attached resonator and neck, sounded by a plectrum)Developed Mid 18th century from the mandolinoTimbrevaries with the type:spruce carved-top, bright flatback, warm or mellowDecay fastPlaying range(a regularly tuned mandolin with 14 frets to body)Related instrumentsListFamilyMandolin Mandola Octave mandolin Mandocello MandobassBandurria Angélique (instrument) Archlute Balalaika Bouzouki Chitarra Italiana Domra Irish bouzouki Lute Mandriola Mandole Oud Pandura TamburaA mandolin (Italian: mandolino pronounced [mandoˈliːno]; literally "small mandola") is a stringed musical instrument in the lute family and is usually plucked with a plectrum or "pick"
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Mandoline
A mandoline (/ˌmændəˈliːn, -ˈlɪn/ or /ˈmændəlɪn/;[1][2] French pronunciation: ​[mɑ̃dolin]) is a cooking utensil used for slicing and for cutting juliennes; with suitable attachments, it can make crinkle-cuts.Contents1 Design 2 Operation 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksDesign[edit] A mandoline consists of two parallel working surfaces, one of which can be adjusted in height.[3] A food item is slid along the adjustable surface until it reaches a blade mounted on the fixed surface, slicing it and letting it fall. Other blades perpendicular to the main blade are often mounted so that the slice is cut into strips. The mandoline juliennes in several widths and thicknesses. It also makes slices, waffle cuts and crinkle cuts, and dices firm vegetables and fruits. With a mandoline, slices are uniform in thickness,[4] which is important with foods that are deep-fried or baked (e.g. potato chips), as well as for presentation
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Classical Music
Classical music
Classical music
is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture, including both liturgical (religious) and secular music. While a more precise term is also used to refer to the period from 1750 to 1820 (the Classical period), this article is about the broad span of time from before the 6th century AD to the present day, which includes the Classical period and various other periods.[1] The central norms of this tradition became codified between 1550 and 1900, which is known as the common-practice period
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Pandura
The pandura (Ancient Greek: πανδοῦρα, pandoura) was an ancient Greek string instrument belonging in the broad class of the lute and guitar instruments. Musical instruments of this class have been observed in ancient Greek artwork from the 3rd or 4th century BC onward.[1] Lutes have been present in ancient Greece since the 4th century BC.[1]Contents1 Ancient Greece 2 Roman 3 Mesopotamia 4 Eastern variations4.1 Caucasus5 Gallery 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksAncient Greece[edit] The ancient Greek pandoura was a medium or long-necked lute with a small resonating chamber, used by the ancient Greeks. It commonly had three strings: such an instrument was also known as the trichordon (τρίχορδον, McKinnon 1984:10)
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Tambura (instrument)
The tambura is a stringed instrument that is played as a folk instrument in Macedonia, Croatia and Bulgaria. It has doubled steel strings and is played with a plectrum, in the same manner as a mandolin.Contents1 The Bulgarian tambura 2 The Macedonian tambura 3 Playing technique 4 Form 5 See also 6 ReferencesThe Bulgarian tambura[edit]Bulgarian tambura.The Bulgarian tambura has 8 steel strings in 4 doubled courses. All the courses are tuned in unison, with no octaves. It is tuned D3 D3, G3 G3, B3 B3, E4 E4. It has a floating bridge and a metal tailpiece. The instrument body is often carved from a single block of wood and is therefore quite heavy. The Macedonian tambura[edit] The Macedonian tambura has 4 steel strings in 2 doubled courses. It is tuned A A , D D (or another pitch but at the same relative intervals of a fourth) when playing melodies based on A tonic upon A drone
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Italian Language
Italian ( italiano (help·info) [itaˈljaːno] or lingua italiana [ˈliŋɡwa itaˈljaːna]) is a Romance language. Italian is by most measures, together with the Sardinian language, the closest tongue to vulgar Latin
Latin
of the Romance languages.[7] Italian is an official language in Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, Vatican City
Vatican City
and western Istria
Istria
(in Slovenia
Slovenia
and Croatia). It used to have official status in Albania, Malta
Malta
and Monaco, where it is still widely spoken, as well as in former Italian East Africa
Italian East Africa
and Italian North Africa regions where it plays a significant role in various sectors
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Strings (music)
A string is the vibrating element that produces sound in string instruments such as the guitar, harp, piano (piano wire), and members of the violin family. Strings are lengths of a flexible material that a musical instrument holds under tension so that they can vibrate freely, but controllably. Strings may be "plain", consisting only of a single material, like steel, nylon, or gut, or wound, having a "core" of one material and an overwinding of another. This is to make the string vibrate at the desired pitch, while maintaining a low profile and sufficient flexibility for playability. The invention of wound strings, such as nylon covered in wound metal, was a crucial step in string instrument technology, because a metal-wound string can produce a lower pitch than a catgut string of similar thickness. This enabled stringed instruments to be made with less thick bass strings
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Unison
UNISON
UNISON
is the second largest trade union in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
with almost 1.3 million members.[4][5] The union was formed in 1993 when three public sector trade unions, the National and Local Government Officers Association (NALGO), the National Union of Public Employees
National Union of Public Employees
(NUPE) and the Confederation of Health Service Employees (COHSE) merged.[6] UNISON's current general secretary is Dave Prentis
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Tricordia
String instrumentPlucked string instrumentPlaying range(a regularly tuned tricordia with 14 frets to body)Related instrumentsMandolin Mandola Octave mandola Mandocello MandobassA bowlback mandriola manufactured by Oscar Schmidt Inc.A tricordia (also trichordia or tricordio) or mandriola is a twelve-stringed variation of the mandolin.[1] The tricordia is used in Mexican folk music, while its European cousin, the mandriola, is used identically to the mandolin. It differs from a standard mandolin in that it has three strings per course. Mandriolas only use unison tuning (G3 G3 G3 • D4 D4 D4 • A4 A4 A4 • E5 E5 E5), while tricordias use either unison tuning or octave tuning (G2 G3 G3 • D3 D4 D4 • A3 A4 A4 • E4 E5 E5). References[edit]^ ATLAS of Plucked Instruments - mandolinsThis article relating to string instruments is a stub
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Perfect Fifths
In music theory, a perfect fifth is the musical interval corresponding to a pair of pitches with a frequency ratio of 3:2, or very nearly so. In classical music from Western culture, a fifth is the interval from the first to the last of five consecutive notes in a diatonic scale.[1] The perfect fifth (often abbreviated P5) spans seven semitones, while the diminished fifth spans six and the augmented fifth spans eight semitones. For example, the interval from C to G is a perfect fifth, as the note G lies seven semitones above C. Play (help·info) The perfect fifth may be derived from the harmonic series as the interval between the second and third harmonics. In a diatonic scale, the dominant note is a perfect fifth above the tonic note. The perfect fifth is more consonant, or stable, than any other interval except the unison and the octave. It occurs above the root of all major and minor chords (triads) and their extensions
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Soprano
A soprano [soˈpraːno] is a type of classical female singing voice and has the highest vocal range of all voice types. The soprano's vocal range (using scientific pitch notation) is from approximately middle C (C4) = 261 Hz to "high A" (A5) =880 Hz in choral music, or to "soprano C" (C6, two octaves above middle C) =1046 Hz or higher in operatic music. In four-part chorale style harmony, the soprano takes the highest part, which usually encompasses the melody.[1] The soprano voice type is generally divided into the coloratura, soubrette, lyric, spinto, and dramatic soprano
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Family (musical Instruments)
A family of musical instruments is a grouping of several different but related sizes or types of instruments. Some schemes of musical instrument classification, such as the Hornbostel-Sachs system, are based on a hierarchy of instrument families and families of families. Some commonly recognized families are:Brass family Strings family Woodwind
Woodwind
family Percussion family Keyboard family[1][2][3]Family relationships are not always clear-cut. For example, some authorities regard families as encompassing only instruments of different pitch range that have similar construction and tone quality. They therefore, for example, do not regard the cor anglais as a member of the oboe family, because its narrow bore and piriform bell give it a distinctly different tone quality from the oboe.[citation needed] References[edit]^ "Musical Instruments". www.naxos.com
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Traditional Music
Folk music
Folk music
includes both traditional music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th century folk revival. The term originated in the 19th century, but is often applied to music older than that. Some types of folk music are also called world music. Traditional folk music has been defined in several ways: as music transmitted orally, music with unknown composers, or music performed by custom over a long period of time. It has been contrasted with commercial and classical styles. Starting in the mid-20th century, a new form of popular folk music evolved from traditional folk music. This process and period is called the (second) folk revival and reached a zenith in the 1960s
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Mandole
The Algerian mandole
Algerian mandole
(mandol, mondol) is steel-string fretted instrument resembling an elongated mandolin, popular in Algerian Kabyle and Chaabi music and Nuba (Andalusian classical music).[1][2][3] The name can cause confusion, as "mandole" is a French word for mandola, the instrument from which the Algerian mandole
Algerian mandole
developed. The Algerian mandole
Algerian mandole
is not however a mandola, but a mandocello sized instrument. The instrument has also been called a "mandoluth" when describing the instrument played by the Algerian-French musician, Hakim Hamadouche.[4] However, the luthier for one of Hakim's instruments describes it as a mondole.[5]Contents1 Structure 2 History 3 Musicians 4 Luthiers 5 External links 6 ReferencesStructure[edit]Different styles of sound hole Mandola
Mandola
(left) and an Algerian mandole
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Folk Music
Folk music
Folk music
includes both traditional music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th century folk revival. The term originated in the 19th century, but is often applied to music older than that. Some types of folk music are also called world music. Traditional folk music has been defined in several ways: as music transmitted orally, music with unknown composers, or music performed by custom over a long period of time. It has been contrasted with commercial and classical styles. Starting in the mid-20th century, a new form of popular folk music evolved from traditional folk music. This process and period is called the (second) folk revival and reached a zenith in the 1960s
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Bluegrass Music
Bluegrass music
Bluegrass music
is a form of American roots music, and is defined by its unique homage to America and its various cultural influences that truly define America. Influenced by the music of Appalachia,[1] bluegrass has mixed roots in Irish, Scottish and English[2] traditional music, and was also later influenced by the music of African-Americans[3] through incorporation of jazz elements. Settlers from Britain and Ireland arrived in Appalachia
Appalachia
during the 18th century, and brought with them the musical traditions of their homelands.[4] These traditions consisted primarily of English and Scottish ballads—which were essentially unaccompanied narrative—and dance music, such as Irish reels, which were accompanied by a fiddle.[5] Many older bluegrass songs come directly from the British Isles
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