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Manchuria
Manchuria
Manchuria
(simplified Chinese: 满洲; traditional Chinese: 滿洲; pinyin: Mǎnzhōu) was a name first used in the 17th century by Chinese people to refer to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia. Depending on the context, Manchuria
Manchuria
can either refer to a region that falls entirely within the People's Republic of China[1][2][3] or a larger region divided between China
China
and Russia
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Chifeng
Chifeng
Chifeng
(Chinese: 赤峰市), also known as Ulankhad (Mongolian: ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨᠬᠠᠳᠠ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ (Улаанхад хот) Ulaɣanqada qota [ʊlaːnxad xɔt], "red cliff"), is a prefecture-level city in southeastern Inner Mongolia, People's Republic of China. It borders Xilin Gol League
Xilin Gol League
to the north and west, Tongliao
Tongliao
to the northeast, Chaoyang (Liaoning) to the southeast, and Chengde
Chengde
(Hebei) to the south. The city has a total administrative area of 90,275 square kilometres (34,855 sq mi) and has a population of 4,341,245 inhabitants. As of the 2010 census, 1,094,970 of those residents reside within in the urban districts of Hongshan, Yuanbaoshan and Songshan. However, a large part of Songshan is still rural and Yuanbaoshan is a de facto separate town 27 kilometers away from the core district of Chifeng
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Korean Peninsula
The Korean Peninsula
Peninsula
is a peninsula in East Asia. It extends southwards for about 1,100 km (680 mi) from continental Asia into the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
and is surrounded by the Sea of Japan
Sea of Japan
(East Sea) to the east, and the Yellow Sea
Yellow Sea
to the west, the Korea
Korea
Strait connecting the first two bodies of water.Contents1 Name 2 History 3 Comparison of the two countries on the Korean Peninsula 4 Flora and fauna 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksName[edit] The peninsula's names in Korean, Chinese and Japanese all have the same origin, that being Joseon, the old name of Korea
Korea
under the Joseon Dynasty and Gojoseon
Gojoseon
even longer before that
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Hinggan League
The Hinggan League (Chinese: 兴安盟; pinyin: Xīng’ān Méng; Mongolian: ᠬᠢᠩᠭ᠋ᠠᠨ ᠠᠢᠮᠠᠭ, tr. Hinggan Aimag) is a prefecture-level subdivision of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China. It borders Hulun Buir to the north, the independent state of Mongolia and Xilingol League to the west, Tongliao to the south and the provinces of Jilin and Heilongjiang to the east
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World Geographical Scheme For Recording Plant Distributions
The World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions (WGSRPD) is a biogeographical system developed by the international Biodiversity Information Standards (TDWG) organization, formerly the International Working Group on Taxonomic Databases.[1] The WGSRPD standards, like other standards for data fields in botanical databases, were developed to promote "the wider and more effective dissemination of information about the world's heritage of biological organisms for the benefit of the world at large". The system provides clear definitions and codes for recording plant distributions at four scales or levels, from "botanical continents" down to parts of large countries
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Stanovoy Mountains
The Stanovoy Range
Stanovoy Range
(Russian: Станово́й хребе́т, Stanovoy khrebet; simplified Chinese: 外兴安岭; traditional Chinese: 外興安嶺; pinyin: Wài xìng'ān lǐng), also known as Sükebayatur and Sükhbaatar in Mongolian, or Outer Khingan Range is a mountain range located in southeastern parts of the Russian Far East. It runs south-west to north-east for over 900 km, from the Olyokma River
Olyokma River
in the west, to the Uchur River
Uchur River
in the east.[1] almost to the Sea of Okhotsk. It separates the watershed of the Arctic Ocean (via the Lena) from that of the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
(via the Amur). For this reason, it was the border between Russia and China from 1689 (Treaty of Nerchinsk) to 1858 (Treaty of Aigun). It is about 725 km long. Its highest point is Mount Skalisty at 2,482 meters (8,143 ft)
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Sea Of Japan
The Sea of Japan
Japan
(see below for other names) is a marginal sea between the Japanese archipelago, Sakhalin, the Korean Peninsula
Korean Peninsula
and Russia. The Japanese archipelago
Japanese archipelago
separates the sea from the Pacific Ocean. It is bordered by Japan, Korea
Korea
(North and South) and Russia. Like the Mediterranean Sea, it has almost no tides due to its nearly complete enclosure from the Pacific Ocean.[1] This isolation also reflects in the fauna species and in the water salinity, which is lower than in the ocean. The sea has no large islands, bays or capes. Its water balance is mostly determined by the inflow and outflow through the straits connecting it to the neighboring seas and Pacific Ocean
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Ussuri Krai
Ussuri krai (Russian: Уссури́йский край) is an unofficial name for a part of Primorsky Krai and Khabarovsky Krai that consisted of the Ussuri and South-Ussuri Okrugs. The name was often used in late Imperial Russia. The name comes from the fact that Ussuri River is located on the territory of the krai. Through the efforts of the Russian governor Nikolay Muravyov-Amursky, the Qing dynasty of China conceded its rights to the territory to Russia in 1858. This decision was officially documented in the Aigun Treaty (1858) the Beijing Treaty (1860).[1][2] In 1889–1918, Ussuri krai was the location of the Ussuri Cossack Host. It was re-established in the 1990s. National Geographic Channel represented the film named "Secret Forest" as the part of the cycle Wild Russia, which describes the natural reserves of Ussuri Krai. Coordinates: 44°00′00″N 133°00′00″E / 44.0000°N 133.0000°E / 44.0000; 133.0000References[edit]^ Kim, Sun Joo (2011-06-01)
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Sakhalin
Sakhalin
Sakhalin
(Russian: Сахалин, pronounced [səxɐˈlʲin]), previously also known as Karafuto
Karafuto
(Japanese: 樺太), is a large Russian island in the North Pacific Ocean, lying between 45°50' and 54°24' N. It is Russia's largest island, and is administered as part of Sakhalin
Sakhalin
Oblast. Sakhalin, which is about one third the size of Honshu, is just off the east coast of Russia, and just north of Japan. The population was 497,973 as of the 2010 census, made up of mostly ethnic Russians
Russians
and a smaller Korean community. The indigenous peoples of the island are the Ainu, Oroks and Nivkhs.[3] Sakhalin
Sakhalin
was claimed by both Russia
Russia
and Japan
Japan
over the course of the 19th and 20th centuries
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Ainu People
The Ainu or the Aynu (Ainu アィヌ Aynu; Japanese: アイヌ Ainu; Russian: Айны Ajny), in the historical Japanese texts Ezo (蝦夷), are an indigenous people of Japan
Japan
(Hokkaido, and formerly northeastern Honshu) and Russia
Russia
(Sakhalin, the Kuril Islands, and formerly the Kamchatka Peninsula).[5] The offici
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Tan-lo
Jeju Island (Hangul: 제주도, Korean pronunciation: [tɕe.dʑu.do] Jejudo; previously Cheju-do) is the largest island off the coast of the Korean Peninsula, and the main island of Jeju Province of South Korea. The island lies in the Korea Strait, south of South Jeolla Province. The island contains the natural World Heritage Site Jeju Volcanic Island and Lava Tubes.[1] Jejudo has a moderate climate; even in winter, the temperature rarely falls below 0 °C (32 °F)
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Quelpart
Jeju Island (Hangul: 제주도, Korean pronunciation: [tɕe.dʑu.do] Jejudo; previously Cheju-do) is the largest island off the coast of the Korean Peninsula, and the main island of Jeju Province of South Korea. The island lies in the Korea Strait, south of South Jeolla Province. The island contains the natural World Heritage Site Jeju Volcanic Island and Lava Tubes.[1] Jejudo has a moderate climate; even in winter, the temperature rarely falls below 0 °C (32 °F)
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Herbert A. Giles
Herbert Allen Giles (8 December 1845 – 13 February 1935) was a British diplomat and sinologist who was the professor of Chinese at Cambridge University[2] for 35 years. Giles was educated at Charterhouse School before becoming a British diplomat in China. He modified a Mandarin Chinese romanisation system established by Thomas Wade, resulting in the widely known Wade–Giles Chinese romanisation system. Among his many works were translations of the Analects of Confucius, the Lao Tzu (Tao Te Ching), the Chuang Tzu, and, in 1892, the widely published A Chinese-English Dictionary.Contents1 Biography 2 Legacy 3 Diplomatic postings 4 Awards 5 Written works 6 Translations 7 References 8 Sources 9 External linksBiography[edit] Herbert A. Giles was the fourth son of John Allen Giles (1808–1884), an Anglican clergyman. After studying at Charterhouse, Herbert became a British diplomat to Qing China, serving from 1867 to 1892
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Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
Romanization
Romanization
(simplified Chinese: 汉语拼音; traditional Chinese: 漢語拼音), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
in mainland China
China
and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin
Pinyin
without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters. The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang,[1] based on earlier form romanizations of Chinese
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Romanization Of Russian
Romanization
Romanization
of Russian is the process of transliterating the Russian language from the Cyrillic script
Cyrillic script
into the Latin script. As well as its primary use for citing Russian names and words in languages which use a Latin alphabet, romanization is also essential for computer users to input Russian text who either do not have a keyboard or word processor set up for inputting Cyrillic, or else are not capable of typing rapidly using a native Russian keyboard layout (JCUKEN)
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Russian Language
Russian (Russian: ру́сский язы́к, tr. rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language
East Slavic language
and an official language in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
and many minor or unrecognised territories throughout Eurasia
Eurasia
(particularly in Eastern Europe, the Baltics, the Caucasus, and Central Asia). It is an unofficial but widely spoken language in Latvia, Moldova, Ukraine
Ukraine
and to a lesser extent, the other post-Soviet states.[31][32] Russian belongs to the family of Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
and is one of the four living members of the East Slavic languages
Slavic languages
(which in turn is part of the larger Balto-Slavic branch)
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