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Malus Domestica
An apple is a sweet, edible fruit produced by an apple tree (Malus pumila). Apple
Apple
trees are cultivated worldwide as a fruit tree, and is the most widely grown species in the genus Malus. The tree originated in Central Asia, where its wild ancestor, Malus
Malus
sieversii, is still found today. Apples have been grown for thousands of years in Asia
Asia
and Europe, and were brought to North America by European colonists. Apples have religious and mythological significance in many cultures, including Norse, Greek and European Christian traditions. Apple
Apple
trees are large if grown from seed. Generally apple cultivars are propagated by grafting onto rootstocks, which control the size of the resulting tree. There are more than 7,500 known cultivars of apples, resulting in a range of desired characteristics
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Apple Inc.
Coordinates: 37°19′55″N 122°01′52″W / 37.33182°N 122.03118°W / 37.33182; -122.03118Apple Inc.The Apple Campus
Apple Campus
in Cupertino, CaliforniaFormerly calledApple Computer Company (1976–1977) Apple Computer, Inc. (1977–2007)TypePublicTraded asNASDAQ: AAPL NASDAQ-100
NASDAQ-100
component DJIA component S&P 100 component S&P 500 componentISIN US0378331005IndustryComputer hardware Computer software Consumer electronics Digital distribution Semiconductors Fabless silicon design Corporate venture capitalFounded April 1, 1976; 42 years ago (1976-04-01)FoundersSteve Jobs Steve Wozniak Ronald WayneHeadquarters Apple Park, 1 Apple Park
Apple Park
Way, Cupertino, California, U.S.Number of locations499 retail stores (2017)Area servedWorldwideKey people Arthur D
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Deciduous
In the fields of horticulture and botany, the term deciduous means "falling off at maturity"[1] and "tending to fall off",[2] in reference to trees and shrubs that seasonally shed leaves, usually in the autumn; to the shedding of petals, after flowering; and to the shedding of ripe fruit. Generally, the term deciduous means "the dropping of a part that is no longer needed" and the "falling away [of a part] after its purpose is finished"
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Cultivar
The term cultivar[nb 1] most commonly refers to an assemblage of plants selected for desirable characters that are maintained during propagation. More generally, cultivar refers to the most basic classification category of cultivated plants in the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP). Most cultivars arose in cultivation, but a few are special selections from the wild. Popular ornamental garden plants like roses, camellias, daffodils, rhododendrons, and azaleas are cultivars produced by careful breeding and selection for floral colour and form. Similarly, the world's agricultural food crops are almost exclusively cultivars that have been selected for characters such as improved yield, flavour, and resistance to disease, and very few wild plants are now used as food sources
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Grafting
Grafting
Grafting
or graftage[1] is a horticultural technique whereby tissues of plants are joined so as to continue their growth together. The upper part of the combined plant is called the scion (/ˈsaɪən/) while the lower part is called the rootstock. The success of this joining requires that the vascular tissue grow together and such joining is called inosculation. The technique is most commonly used in asexual propagation of commercially grown plants for the horticultural and agricultural trades. In most cases, one plant is selected for its roots and this is called the stock or rootstock. The other plant is selected for its stems, leaves, flowers, or fruits and is called the scion or cion.[1] The scion contains the desired genes to be duplicated in future production by the stock/scion plant. In stem grafting, a common grafting method, a shoot of a selected, desired plant cultivar is grafted onto the stock of another type
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Cooking Apple
A cooking apple is an apple that is used primarily for cooking, as opposed to a dessert apple, which is eaten raw. Cooking apples are generally larger, and can be tarter than dessert varieties. Some varieties have a firm flesh that does not break down much when cooked. Cooking apples are also known as culinary apples. Culinary varieties with a high acid content become a froth when cooked, which is desirable for some recipes.[1] In Britain a large range of apples are grown specifically for cooking. Worldwide, dual-purpose varieties (those used for both cooking and eating raw) are more widely grown. Apples can be cooked down into sauce, apple butter or fruit preserves, baked in an oven and served with custard, and made into pies or apple crumble. In the UK roast pork is commonly served with cold apple sauce made from boiled and mashed apples
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Apple Cider
Apple
Apple
cider (also called sweet cider or soft cider or simply cider) is the name used in the United States and parts of Canada for an unfiltered, unsweetened, non-alcoholic beverage made from apples. Though typically referred to simply as "cider" in those areas, it is not to be confused with the alcoholic beverage known as cider throughout most of the world, called hard cider (or just cider) in North America. Once widely pressed at farmsteads and local mills, apple cider is now easy and inexpensive to make.[1] It is typically opaque due to fine apple particles in suspension and generally tangier than conventional filtered apple juice, depending on the apples used.[2] Today, most cider is treated to kill bacteria and extend its shelf life, but untreated cider can still be found. In either form, apple cider is a seasonally produced drink[3] of limited shelf-life that is typically available only in autumn
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Fungus
Dikarya
Dikarya
(inc. Deuteromycota)AscomycotaPezizomycotina Saccharomycotina TaphrinomycotinaBasidiomycotaAgaricomycotina Pucciniomycotina UstilaginomycotinaSubphyla incertae sedisEntomophthoromycotina Kickxellomycotina Mucoromycotina ZoopagomycotinaA fungus (plural: fungi[3] or funguses[4]) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. These organisms are classified as a kingdom, Fungi, which is separate from the other eukaryotic life kingdoms of plants and animals. A characteristic that places fungi in a different kingdom from plants, bacteria, and some protists is chitin in their cell walls. Similar to animals, fungi are heterotrophs; they acquire their food by absorbing dissolved molecules, typically by secreting digestive enzymes into their environment. Fungi do not photosynthesise
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Organic Farming
Organic farming
Organic farming
is an alternative agricultural system which originated early in the 20th century in reaction to rapidly changing farming practices. Organic farming
Organic farming
continues to be developed by various organic agriculture organizations today. It relies on fertilizers of organic origin such as compost manure, green manure, and bone meal and places emphasis on techniques such as crop rotation and companion planting. Biological pest control, mixed cropping and the fostering of insect predators are encouraged. In general, organic standards are designed to allow the use of naturally occurring substances while prohibiting or strictly limiting synthetic substances.[2] For instance, naturally occurring pesticides such as pyrethrin and rotenone are permitted, while synthetic fertilizers and pesticides are generally prohibited
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Genome
In terms of modern molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism. It consists of DNA
DNA
(or RNA
RNA
in RNA viruses)
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DNA Sequencing
DNA
DNA
sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA
DNA
molecule. It includes any method or technology that is used to determine the order of the four bases—adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine—in a strand of DNA. The advent of rapid DNA
DNA
sequencing methods has greatly accelerated biological and medical research and discovery.[1] Knowledge of DNA
DNA
sequences has become indispensable for basic biological research, and in numerous applied fields such as medical diagnosis, biotechnology, forensic biology, virology and biological systematics
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Tonnes
The tonne (/tʌn/ ( listen)) (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;[1][2][3][4] or one megagram (Mg); it is equivalent to approximately 2,204.6 pounds,[5] 1.102 short tons (US) or 0.984 long tons (imperial). Although not part of the SI, the tonne is accepted for use with SI units and prefixes by the International Committee for Weights and Measures.[6]Contents1 Symbol and abbreviations 2 Origin and spelling 3 Conversions 4 Derived units 5 Alternative usage5.1 Use of mass as proxy for energy 5.2 Unit of force6 See also 7 Notes and references 8 External linksSymbol and abbreviations[edit] The SI symbol for the tonne is "t", adopted at the same time as the unit in 1879.[2] Its use is also official for the metric ton in the United States, having been adopted by the United States National Institute of Standards and Technology.[7] It
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Rootstock
A rootstock is part of a plant, often an underground part, from which new above-ground growth can be produced. It can refer to a rhizome or underground stem.[1] In grafting, it refers to a plant, sometimes just a stump, which already has an established, healthy root system, onto which a cutting or a bud from another plant is grafted. In some cases, such as vines of grapes and other berries, cuttings may be used for rootstocks, the roots being established in nursery conditions before planting them out. The plant part grafted onto the rootstock is usually called the scion. The scion is the plant that has the properties that propagator desires above ground, including the photosynthetic activity and the fruit or decorative properties. The rootstock is selected for its interaction with the soil, providing the roots and the stem to support the new plant, obtaining the necessary soil water and minerals, and resisting the relevant pests and diseases
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Greek Mythology
Greek mythology
Greek mythology
is the body of myths and teachings that belong to the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world, and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. It was a part of the religion in ancient Greece. Modern scholars refer to and study the myths in an attempt to shed light on the religious and political institutions of ancient Greece and its civilization, and to gain understanding of the nature of myth-making itself.[1] Greek mythology
Greek mythology
has had an extensive influence on the culture, arts, and literature of Western civilization and remains part of Western heritage and language
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Leaf
A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem.[1] The leaves and stem together form the shoot.[2] Leaves are collectively referred to as foliage, as in "autumn foliage".[3][4]Diagram of a simple leaf.Apex Midvein (Primary vein) Secondary vein. Lamina. Leaf
Leaf
margin Petiole Bud StemAlthough leaves can be seen in many different shapes, sizes and textures, typically a leaf is a thin, dorsiventrally flattened organ, borne above ground and specialized for photosynthesis. In most leaves, the primary photosynthetic tissue, the palisade mesophyll, is located on the upper side of the blade or lamina of the leaf[1] but in some species, including the mature foliage of Eucalyptus,[5] palisade mesophyll is present on both sides and the leaves are said to be isobilateral
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Leaf Arrangement
In botany, phyllotaxis or phyllotaxy is the arrangement of leaves on a plant stem (from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
phýllon "leaf" and táxis "arrangement").[1] Phyllotactic spirals form a distinctive class of patterns in nature.Contents1 Leaf
Leaf
arrangement 2 Repeating spiral 3 Determination 4 History 5 Mathematics 6 In art and architecture 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External links Leaf
Leaf
arrangement[edit]Opposite leaf patternWhorled leaf patternTwo different examples of the alternate (spiral) leaf patternThe basic arrangements of leaves on a stem are opposite, or alternate = spiral. Leaves may also be whorled if several leaves arise, or appear to arise, from the same level (at the same node) on a stem. This arrangement is fairly unusual on plants except for those with particularly short internodes
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