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Malik-Shah III
MALIK-SHAH III (died 1160 ) ruled as Sultan of Great Seljuq from 1152–53. He was the son of Mahmud II of Great Seljuq . In 1153, he was deposed and was succeeded by his brother, Muhammad . Following his death in 1160, his son Mahmud was held in Istakhr by the Salghurids as a rival claimant to the Seljuq throne. REFERENCES * ^ Studies in Islamic History and Civilization. Brill . 1986. p. 275. * ^ The Political and Dynastic History of the Iranian World, C.E. Bosworth, THE CAMBRIDGE HISTORY OF IRAN, Vol. 5, ed
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Mesud I
MESUD I\', MASUD I or MA\'SUD I (Modern Turkish : I. Rükneddin Mesud or RUKN AL-DīN MAS\'ūD (Persian : ركن الدین مسعود‎‎) was the sultan of the Seljuks of Rum from 1116 until his death in 1156. REIGNFollowing the defeat and death of his father Kilij Arslan I
Kilij Arslan I
by Fakhr al-Mulk Radwan of Aleppo at the battle of Khabur river in 1107, Masud lost the throne in favor of his brother Malik Shah . With the help of the Danishmends
Danishmends
, Masud captured Konya
Konya
and defeated Malikshah in 1116, later blinding and eventually murdering him. Masud would later turn on the Danishmends
Danishmends
and conquer their lands. In 1130, he started construction of the Alâeddin Mosque in Konya, which was later completed in 1221. Masud, towards the end of his reign, fought against the armies of the Second Crusade
Second Crusade

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Kilij Arslan II
KILIJ ARSLAN II (Old Anatolian Turkish : قِلِج اَرسلان دوم) or ʿIZZ AD-DīN QILIJ ARSLāN BIN MASʿūD (Persian : عز الدین قلج ارسلان بن مسعود‎‎) (Modern Turkish Kılıç Arslan, meaning "Sword Lion") was a Seljuk Sultan
Sultan
of Rûm from 1156 until his death in 1192. REIGNAs Arnold of Lübeck reports in his Chronica Slavorum, he was present at the meeting of Henry the Lion with Kilij-Arslan during the former's pilgrimage to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in 1172. When they met near Tarsus , the sultan embraced and kissed the German duke, reminding him that they were blood cousins ('amplexans et deosculans eum, dicens, eum consanguineum suum esse')
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Malik Shah (Rûm)
MALIK SHAH, MALEK SHAH, MELIK SHAH, or MELIKşAH (Old Anatolian Turkish : مَلِك شاه, Persian : ملک شاه‎‎), also called Şehinşah (شاهنشاه, king of kings) was the sultan of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm
Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm
between the years 1110 and 1116. REIGNPrior to Melikshah's accession, the throne had remained vacant for three years following the death of Kilij Arslan I
Kilij Arslan I
in 1107. Melikshah was held prisoner in Isfahan
Isfahan
until 1110 when he returned to Anatolia to assume the throne
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Kilij Arslan I
KILIJ ARSLAN (Old Anatolian Turkish : قِلِج اَرسلان; Persian : قلج ارسلان‎‎ Qilij Arslān; Modern Turkish : Kılıç Arslan, meaning "Sword Lion") (‎1079–1107) was the Seljuq Sultan of Rûm from 1092 until his death in 1107. He ruled the Sultanate during the time of the First Crusade and thus faced the attack. He also re-established the Sultanate of Rum
Sultanate of Rum
after the death of Malik Shah I of Great Seljuq and defeated the Crusaders
Crusaders
in three battles during the Crusade of 1101
Crusade of 1101

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List Of Rulers Of Damascus
This is a list of RULERS OF DAMASCUS from ancient times to the present. General context: History of Damascus
Damascus
. CONTENTS * 1 Canaanite * 2 Aram Damascus
Damascus
* 3 Period of non-independence * 4 Rashidun
Rashidun
emirs * 5 Umayyad
Umayyad
emirs * 6 Abbasid
Abbasid
emirs * 7 Fatimid
Fatimid
emirs * 8 Seljuq emirs * 9 Burid emirs * 10 Zengid atabegs * 11 Ayyubid sultans * 12 Mamluk na\'ibs * 13 Ottoman walis * 14 Hashemite kingdom * 15 Capital of Syria * 16 See also * 17 References * 18 External links CANAANITE * Uz ben Shem (c. 2500 BC) * Biryawaza (14th century BC)ARAM DAMASCUS * Rezon I (c. 950 BC) * Tabrimmon * Ben-Hadad I (c. 885 BCE-c. 865 BC) * Hadadezer (c. 865 BC-c
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Atsiz Ibn Uvaq
ATSIZ IBN UWAQ AL-KHWARIZMI, also known as AL-AQSIS, ATSIZ IBN UVAQ, ATSIZ IBN OQ and ATSIZ IBN ABAQ (died 1078 or 1079), was a Khwarezmian Turkish mercenary commander who established a principality in Palestine and southern Syria after seizing these from the Fatimid Caliphate in 1071. In 1076 he captured Damascus
Damascus
, where he began construction of the Citadel of Damascus
Damascus
, but an attempt to attack Cairo
Cairo
in the following year resulted in defeat and he was in turn forced to deal with a Fatimid advance into Syria. After appealing to the Seljuks he received assistance from Tutush , brother of the Great Seljuk sultan Malik Shah I , but was shortly afterwards imprisoned and strangled on the orders of Tutush, who proceeded to take control of his former territories. REFERENCES * Başan, Aziz (2010). The Great Seljuqs: A History. Abingdon: Routledge. pp. 85, 88–89. ISBN 0-203-84923-X
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Kaykhusraw I
KAYKHUSRAW I (Old Anatolian Turkish : كَیخُسرو or GHIYāTH AD-DīN KAYKHUSRAW BIN QILIJ ARSLāN; Persian : غياث الدين كيخسرو بن قلج ارسلان‎‎), the eleventh and youngest son of Kilij Arslan II
Kilij Arslan II
, was Seljuk Sultan of Rûm . He succeeded his father in 1192, but had to fight his brothers for control of the Sultanate, losing to his brother Suleiman II in 1196. He ruled it 1192-1196 and 1205-1211. He married a daughter of Manuel Maurozomes , son of Theodore Maurozomes and of an illegitimate daughter of the Byzantine emperor Manuel I Komnenos
Manuel I Komnenos
. Manuel Maurozomes fought on behalf of Kaykhusraw in 1205 and 1206. In 1207 he seized Antalya
Antalya
from its Frankish garrison and furnished the Seljuq state with a port on the Mediterranean
Mediterranean

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Suleiman II (Rûm)
SULEIMAN II, also known as RUKN AD-DIN SULEIMAN SHAH (Persian : رکن الدین سلیمان شاه‎‎), was the Seljuk Sultan of Rûm between 1196 and 1204. Son of Kilij Arslan II
Kilij Arslan II
, he overthrew his brother, Sultan Kaykhusraw I , who had succeeded their father in 1192 and became sultan in 1196. He fought neighbouring rulers and expanded the territories of the Sultanate. In 1201 he conquered Erzurum
Erzurum
. Successful in the wars with the Byzantines , he was routed by the Georgians
Georgians
in the Battle of Basian of 1203. He was succeeded by Kilij Arslan III in 1204–1205, after whom Kaykhusraw I
Kaykhusraw I
ascended the throne for a second time. REFERENCES * ^ Charles Cawley (2006-07). "West Asia & North Africa, Chapter 2. Asia Minor. Seljukid Sultans of Rum". Foundation for Medieval Genealogy
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Kaykhusraw II
GHIYATH AL-DIN KAYKHUSRAW II or GHIYāTH AD-DīN KAYKHUSRAW BIN KAYQUBāD (Persian : غياث الدين كيخسرو بن كيقباد‎‎) was the sultan of the Seljuqs of Rûm from 1237 until his death in 1246. He ruled at the time of the Babai uprising and the Mongol invasion of Anatolia . He led the Seljuq army with its Christian allies at the Battle of Köse Dağ in 1243. He was the last of the Seljuq sultans to wield any significant power and died a vassal of the Mongols. CONTENTS * 1 Succession * 2 The Baba Ishak Rebellion * 3 Battle of Köse Dağ * 4 Legacy * 5 Coinage * 6 Sources * 7 References * 8 External links SUCCESSIONKaykhusraw was the son of Kayqubad I and his Armenian wife Hunat Hatun, the daughter of Kir Fard . Although Kaykhusraw was the eldest, the sultan had chosen as heir the younger ‘Izz al-Din, one of his two sons by the Ayyubid princess Ghaziya Khatun, daughter of emir Al-Aziz Muhammad of Aleppo
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Kaykaus II
KAYKAUS II or KAYKA\'US II (Persian : عز الدين كيكاوس بن كيخسرو‎‎, ʿIzz ad-Dīn Kaykāwus bin Kaykhusraw) was the sultan of the Seljuqs of Rûm from 1246 until 1257. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Legacy * 3 See also * 4 Sources * 5 External links LIFEKaykaus was the eldest of three sons of Kaykhusraw II . He was a youth at the time of his father's death in 1246 and could do little to prevent the Mongol conquest of Anatolia
Mongol conquest of Anatolia
. For most of his tenure as the Seljuq Sultan of Rûm , he shared the throne with one or both of his brothers, Kilij Arslan IV and Kayqubad II . His mother was the daughter of a Greek priest, and it was the Greeks
Greeks
of Nicaea from whom he consistently sought aid throughout his life
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Kayqubad I
KAYQUBAD I or ALā AD-DīN KAYQUBāD BIN KAYKāVūS (Persian : علاء الدين كيقباد بن كيكاوس‎‎; Turkish : I. Alâeddin Keykûbad, 1188–1237) was the Seljuq Sultan of Rûm who reigned from 1220 to 1237. He expanded the borders of the sultanate at the expense of his neighbors, particularly the Mengujek Beylik and the Ayyubids , and established a Seljuq presence on the Mediterranean with his acquisition of the port of Kalon Oros, later renamed Ala\'iyya in his honor. He also brought the southern Crimea
Crimea
under Turkish control for a brief period as a result of a raid against the Black Sea
Black Sea
port of Sudak . The sultan, sometimes styled "Kayqubad the Great", is remembered today for his rich architectural legacy and the brilliant court culture that flourished under his reign
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Kaykaus I
KAYKAUS I or KAYKA\'US I or KEYKAVUS I (Old Anatolian Turkish : كَیکاوس, Persian : عز الدين كيكاوس بن كيخسرو‎‎ ʿIzz ad-Dīn Kaykāwūs ibn Kaykhusraw) was the Sultan of Rum from 1211 until his death in 1220. He was the eldest son of Kaykhusraw I . CONTENTS * 1 Succession * 2 The Eastern Frontier and Fifth Crusade * 3 Conquest of Sinop * 4 Monuments * 5 References SUCCESSIONUpon the death of Kaykhusraw I at the Battle of Alaşehir in 1211, Kaykaus’ two younger brothers, Kayferidun Ibrahim and the future Kayqubad I , challenged his succession. Kayqubad initially garnered some support among the neighbors of the sultanate, Leo I , the king of Cilician Armenia , and Tughrilshah, his uncle and the independent ruler of Erzurum
Erzurum

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Kilij Arslan III
ARSLAN is a Turkic or Persian masculine given name and surname used mainly from Southeastern Europe
Southeastern Europe
and the Mediterranean to Siberia
Siberia
and Western China
China
, which is translated as lion . The name Arislan is another variant of the form Arslan
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Kerman
KERMAN ( pronunciation (help ·info )) (Persian : كرمان‎‎, also Romanized as KERMāN, KERMUN, and KIRMAN; also known as CARMANIA) is the capital city of Kerman Province , Iran
Iran
. At the 2011 census, its population was 821,374, in 221,389 households, making it the 10th most populous city of Iran
Iran
. It is the largest and most developed city in Kerman Province and the most important city in the southeast of Iran. It is also one of the largest cities of Iran
Iran
in terms of area. Kerman
Kerman
is famous for its long history and strong cultural heritage . The city is home to many historic mosques and Zoroastrian
Zoroastrian
fire temples . Kerman
Kerman
is also on the recent list of the world's 1000 cleanest cities
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Greater Khorasan
KHORASAN ( Middle Persian
Middle Persian
: , Persian : خراسان‎‎ Xorāsān/Xorâsân listen (help ·info )) is a historical region lying in the northeast of Persia
Persia
. However, in pre-Islamic and early Islamic times , the term "Khurassan" frequently had a much wider denotation, covering also parts of Central Asia
Central Asia
and Afghanistan
Afghanistan
; early Islamic usage often regarded everywhere east of western Persia
Persia
, so-called Jibal or what was subsequently termed 'Irak \'Adjami , as being included in a vast and ill-defined region of Khurasan, which might even extend to the Indus Valley
Indus Valley
and Sind
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