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Malik-Shah III
Malik-Shah III (died 1160[1]) ruled as Sultan of Great Seljuq from 1152–53. He was the son of Mahmud II of Great Seljuq. In 1153, he was deposed and was succeeded by his brother, Muhammad. Following his death in 1160, his son Mahmud was held in Istakhr by the Salghurids
Salghurids
as a rival claimant to the Seljuq throne.[2] References[edit]^ Studies in Islamic History and Civilization. Brill. 1986. p. 275.  ^ The Political and Dynastic History of the Iranian World, C.E. Bosworth, The Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. 5, ed
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Kaykaus II
Kaykaus II or Kayka'us II (Arabic: عز الدين كيكاوس بن كيخسرو‎, ʿIzz ad-Dīn Kaykāwus bin Kaykhusraw) was the sultan of the Seljuqs of Rûm from 1246 until 1257.[dubious – discuss]Contents1 Life 2 Legacy 3 See also 4 Sources 5 External linksLife[edit] Kaykaus was the eldest of three sons of Kaykhusraw II. He was a youth at the time of his father's death in 1246 and could do little to prevent the Mongol
Mongol
conquest of Anatolia. For most of his tenure as the Seljuq Sultan of Rûm, he shared the throne with one or both of his brothers, Kilij Arslan IV and Kayqubad II
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List Of Rulers Of Damascus
This is a list of rulers of Damascus
Damascus
from ancient times to the present.General context: History of Damascus.Contents1 Canaanite 2 Aram Damascus 3 Period of non-independence 4 Rashidun
Rashidun
emirs 5 Umayyad
Umayyad
emirs 6 Abbasid
Abbasid
emirs 7 Fatimid
Fatimid
emirs 8 Seljuq emirs 9 Burid emirs 10 Zengid atabegs 11 Ayyubid sultans 12 Mamluk na'ibs 13 Ottoman walis 14 Hashemite kingdom 15 Capital of Syria 16 See also 17 ReferencesCanaanite[edit]Uz ben Shem (c. 2500 BC) Biryawaza (14th century BC)Aram Damascus[edit]Rezon I (c. 950 BC) Tabrimmon Ben-Hadad I (c. 885 BCE-c. 865 BC) Hadadezer (c. 865 BC-c. 842 BC) Hazael
Hazael
(c. 842 BC-c. 804 BC) Ben-Hadad III (c. 796 BC) Tab-El (c. 770 BC) Rezon II (c
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Kaykhusraw II
Ghiyath al-Din Kaykhusraw II
Kaykhusraw II
or Ghiyāth ad-Dīn Kaykhusraw bin Kayqubād (Persian: غياث الدين كيخسرو بن كيقباد‎) was the sultan of the Seljuqs of Rûm from 1237[2] until his death in 1246. He ruled at the time of the Babai uprising and the Mongol invasion of Anatolia. He led the Seljuq army with its Christian allies at the Battle of Köse Dağ
Battle of Köse Dağ
in 1243. He was the last of the Seljuq sultans to wield any significant power and died as a vassal of the Mongols.Contents1 Succession 2 The Baba Ishak
Baba Ishak
Rebellion 3 Battle of Köse Dağ 4 Legacy 5 Coinage 6 Sources 7 References 8 External linksSuccession[edit] Kaykhusraw was the son of Kayqubad I
Kayqubad I
and his Armenian wife Hunat Hatun, the daughter of Kir Fard
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Kayqubad I
Kayqubad I
Kayqubad I
or Alā ad-Dīn Kayqubād bin Kaykāvūs (Persian: علاء الدين كيقباد بن كيكاوس‎; Turkish: I. Alâeddin Keykûbad, 1188–1237) was the Seljuq Sultan of Rûm
Sultan of Rûm
who reigned from 1220 to 1237. He expanded the borders of the sultanate at the expense of his neighbors, particularly the Mengujek Beylik and the Ayyubids, and established a Seljuq presence on the Mediterranean with his acquisition of the port of Kalon Oros, later renamed Ala'iyya in his honor. He also brought the southern Crimea
Crimea
under Turkish control for a brief period as a result of a raid against the Black Sea
Black Sea
port of Sudak
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Kaykaus I
Kaykaus I
Kaykaus I
or Kayka'us I or Keykavus I (Old Anatolian Turkish: كَیکاوس, Persian: عز الدين كيكاوس بن كيخسرو‎ ʿIzz ad-Dīn Kaykāwūs ibn Kaykhusraw) was the Sultan of Rum
Sultan of Rum
from 1211 until his death in 1220. He was the eldest son of Kaykhusraw I.Contents1 Succession 2 The Eastern Frontier and Fifth Crusade 3 Conquest of Sinop 4 Monuments 5 ReferencesSuccession[edit] Upon the death of Kaykhusraw I
Kaykhusraw I
at the Battle of Alaşehir in 1211,[1] Kaykaus’ two younger brothers, Kayferidun Ibrahim and the future Kayqubad I, challenged his succession. Kayqubad initially garnered some support among the neighbors of the sultanate, Leo I, the king of Cilician Armenia, and Tughrilshah, his uncle and the independent ruler of Erzurum
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Kilij Arslan III
Kilij Arslan III (Old Anatolian Turkish: قِلِج اَرسلان, Persian: قلج ارسلان‎ Qilij Arslān; Modern Turkish: Kılıç Arslan, meaning "Sword Lion") was the Seljuq Sultan of Rûm for a short period between 1204 and 1205.[1] References[edit]^ a b Claude Cahen, The Formation of Turkey: The Seljukid Sultanate of Rum: Eleventh to Fourteenth, transl. & ed. P.M. Holt, (Pearson Education Limited, 2001), 42.Preceded by Süleymanshah II Sultan of Rûm 1204–1205 Succeeded by Kaykhusraw Iv t eSeljuq sultans of Rum (1077–1307)Qutalmish Suleiman I Abu'l-Qasim (self-declared) Kilij Arslan I Malik Shah Mesud I Kilij Arslan II Kaykhusraw I Suleiman II Kilij Arslan III Kaykaus I Kayqubad I Kaykhusraw II Kaykaus II Kilij Arslan IV Kayqubad II Kaykhusraw III Kayqubad III Mesud IIThis biography of a member of an Asian royal house is a stub. You can help by expanding it.v t eThis Turkish biographical article is a stub
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Suleiman II (Rûm)
Suleiman (English: /ˈsuːləmɑːn/ or /ˌsuːleɪˈmɑːn/[1]) is the main transliteration of the Arabic
Arabic
سليمان Sulaymān / Silimān. The name means "man of peace" and corresponds to the English name Solomon. The word may also be transliterated as Sulaiman, Suleman, Soliman, Sulayman, Sulaymaan, Suleyman,Sulaman, Süleyman, Sulejman, Sleiman, Sleman, Sliman, Slimane, Soleman, Solyman, Souleymane Seleman or ‘“suleima’’’. This disambiguation page focuses on individuals and entities with Suleiman as a predominant transliteration.Contents1 Name1.1 Given name 1.2 Surname2 Places 3 Other uses 4 See also 5 ReferencesName[edit]Featuring those named Suleiman
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Kaykhusraw I
Kaykhusraw I
Kaykhusraw I
(Old Anatolian Turkish: كَیخُسرو or Ghiyāth ad-Dīn Kaykhusraw bin Qilij Arslān; Persian: غياث الدين كيخسرو بن قلج ارسلان‎), the eleventh and youngest son of Kilij Arslan II, was Seljuk Sultan of Rûm
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Kilij Arslan II
Kilij Arslan II
Kilij Arslan II
(Old Anatolian Turkish: قِلِج اَرسلان دوم) or ʿIzz ad-Dīn Qilij Arslān bin Masʿūd (Persian: عز الدین قلج ارسلان بن مسعود‎) (Modern Turkish Kılıç Arslan, meaning "Sword Lion") was a Seljuk Sultan
Sultan
of Rûm from 1156 until his death in 1192. Reign[edit] As Arnold of Lübeck reports in his Chronica Slavorum, he was present at the meeting of Henry the Lion
Henry the Lion
with Kilij-Arslan during the former's pilgrimage to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in 1172. When they met near Tarsus, the sultan embraced and kissed the German duke, reminding him that they were blood cousins ('amplexans et deosculans eum, dicens, eum consanguineum suum esse')
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Mesud I
Mesud I', Masud I or Ma'sud I (Modern Turkish: I. Rükneddin Mesud or Rukn al-Dīn Mas'ūd (Persian: ركن الدین مسعود‎) was the sultan of the Seljuks of Rum from 1116 until his death in 1156. Reign[edit] Following the defeat and death of his father Kilij Arslan I
Kilij Arslan I
by Fakhr al-Mulk Radwan of Aleppo at the battle of Khabur river in 1107,[1] Masud lost the throne in favor of his brother Malik Shah. With the help of the Danishmends, Masud captured Konya
Konya
and defeated Malikshah in 1116, later blinding and eventually murdering him. Masud would later turn on the Danishmends
Danishmends
and conquer their lands. In 1130, he started construction of the Alâeddin Mosque
Alâeddin Mosque
in Konya, which was later completed in 1221.[2] Masud, towards the end of his reign, fought against the armies of the Second Crusade
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Malik Shah (Rûm)
Malik Shah, Malek Shah, Melik Shah, or Melikşah (Old Anatolian Turkish: مَلِك شاه, Persian: ملک شاه‎), also called Şehinşah (شاهنشاه, king of kings) was the sultan of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm
Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm
between the years 1110 and 1116. Reign[edit] Prior to Melikshah's accession, the throne had remained vacant for three years following the death of Kilij Arslan I
Kilij Arslan I
in 1107. Melikshah was held prisoner in Isfahan
Isfahan
until 1110 when he returned to Anatolia to assume the throne
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Kilij Arslan I
Kilij Arslan (Old Anatolian Turkish: قِلِج اَرسلان; Persian: قلج ارسلان‬‎ Qilij Arslān; Modern Turkish: Kılıç Arslan, meaning "Sword Lion") (‎1079–1107) was the Seljuq Sultan of Rûm from 1092 until his death in 1107
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Fakhr Al-Mulk Radwan
Sūrat al-Mulk (Arabic: سورة الملك‎, "Sovereignty, Kingdom") is the 67th chapter (sura) of the Quran, comprising 30 verses.[1] The sura emphasizes that no individual can impose his will on another; he may only guide and set an example (67:26).[2] Hadith[edit] The first and foremost exegesis/tafsir of the Qur'an
Qur'an
is found in hadith of Muhammad[3][4] and while hadith is literally "speech"; recorded saying or tradition of Muhammadﷺ validated by isnad; with sira these comprise the sunnah and reveal shariah and tafsir. Although scholars including ibn Taymiyyah claim that Muhammadﷺ has commented on the whole of the Qur'an, others including Ghazali cite the limited amount of narratives, thus indicating that he has commented only on a portion of the Qur'an.[5] In either the case, higher count of hadith elevates the importance of the pertinent surah from a certain perspective
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Atsiz Ibn Uvaq
Atsiz Ibn Uwaq al-Khwarizmi, also known as al-Aqsis, Atsiz ibn Uvaq, Atsiz ibn Oq and Atsiz ibn Abaq (died 1078 or 1079), was a Khwarezmian Turkish mercenary commander who established a principality in Palestine and southern Syria after seizing these from the Fatimid Caliphate in 1071. In 1076 he captured Damascus, where he began construction of the Citadel of Damascus, but an attempt to attack Cairo
Cairo
in the following year resulted in defeat and he was in turn forced to deal with a Fatimid advance into Syria. After appealing to the Seljuks he received assistance from Tutush, brother of the Great Seljuk sultan Malik Shah I, but was shortly afterwards imprisoned and strangled on the orders of Tutush, who proceeded to take control of his former territories. References[edit]Başan, Aziz (2010). The Great Seljuqs: A History. Abingdon: Routledge. pp. 85, 88–89. ISBN 0-203-84923-X.  Burns, Ross (2005). Damascus: A History
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Greater Khorasan
Khorasan ( Middle Persian
Middle Persian
xwarāsān, Persian: خراسان‎ Ḫurāsān  listen (help·info)), sometimes called Greater Khorasan, is a historical region lying in northeast of Greater Persia, including part of Central Asia
Central Asia
and Afghanistan. The name simply means "East, Orient" (literally "sunrise")[1] and it loosely includes the territory of the Sasanian Empire
Sasanian Empire
east of Persia proper. Early Islamic usage often regarded everywhere east of so-called Jibal
Jibal
or what was subsequently termed 'Iraq Adjami' (Persian Iraq), as being included in a vast and loosely-defined region of Khorasan, which might even extend to the Indus Valley
Indus Valley
and Sindh.[2] During the Islamic period, Khorasan along with Persian Iraq were two important territories
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