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Malebolge
In Dante Alighieri's Inferno, part of the Divine Comedy, Malebolge
Malebolge
is the eighth circle of Hell. Roughly translated from Italian, Malebolge means "evil ditches". Malebolge
Malebolge
is a large, funnel-shaped cavern, itself divided into ten concentric circular trenches or ditches. Each trench is called a bolgia (Italian for "pouch" or "ditch"). Long causeway bridges run from the outer circumference of Malebolge
Malebolge
to its center, pictured as spokes on a wheel. At the center of Malebolge
Malebolge
is the ninth and final circle of hell. In Dante’s version of hell, categories of sin are punished in different circles, with the depth of the circle (and placement within that circle) symbolic of the amount of punishment to be inflicted. Sinners placed in the upper circles of hell are given relatively minor punishments, while sinners in the depths of hell endure far greater torments
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Odysseus
Odysseus
Odysseus
(/oʊˈdɪsiəs, oʊˈdɪsjuːs/; Greek: Ὀδυσσεύς, Ὀδυσεύς [odysse͜ús]), also known by the Latin
Latin
variant Ulysses (US: /juːˈlɪsiːz/, UK: /ˈjuːlɪsiːz/; Latin: Ulyssēs, Ulixēs), is a legendary Greek king of Ithaca
Ithaca
and the hero of Homer's epic poem the Odyssey. Odysseus
Odysseus
also plays a key role in Homer's Iliad and other works in that same epic cycle. Son of Laërtes and Anticlea, husband of Penelope
Penelope
and father of Telemachus, Odysseus
Odysseus
is renowned for his intellectual brilliance, guile, and versatility (polytropos), and is thus known by the epithet Odysseus
Odysseus
the Cunning (mētis, or "cunning intelligence")
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Cacus
In Roman mythology, Cacus
Cacus
was a fire-breathing giant and the son of Vulcan. He was killed by Hercules
Hercules
after terrorizing the Aventine Hill before the founding of Rome.[1]Contents1 Mythology 2 In later literature 3 In modern languages 4 References 5 Further readingMythology[edit] Cacus
Cacus
lived in a cave in Italy
Italy
on the future site of Rome. To the horror of nearby inhabitants, Cacus
Cacus
lived on human flesh and would nail the heads of victims to the doors of his cave. He was eventually overcome by Hercules. According to Evander, Hercules
Hercules
stopped to pasture the cattle he had stolen from Geryon
Geryon
near Cacus' lair
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Tar
Tar
Tar
is a dark brown or black viscous liquid of hydrocarbons and free carbon, obtained from a wide variety of organic materials through destructive distillation. Tar
Tar
can be produced from coal, wood, petroleum, or peat.[1] Production and trade in pine-derived tar was a major contributor in the economies of Northern Europe[2] and Colonial America. Its main use was in preserving wooden sailing vessels against rot. The largest user was the Royal Navy. Demand for tar declined with the advent of iron and steel ships. Tar-like products can also be produced from other forms of organic matter, such as peat. Mineral products resembling tar can be produced from fossil hydrocarbons, such as petroleum. Coal
Coal
tar is produced from coal as a byproduct of coke production
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Caiaphas
Joseph Caiaphas, known simply as Caiaphas
Caiaphas
(Hebrew: יוֹסֵף בַּר קַיָּפָא‬; Greek: Καϊάφας) in the New Testament, was the Jewish high priest who is said to have organized the plot to kill Jesus. Caiaphas
Caiaphas
is also said to have been involved in the Sanhedrin
Sanhedrin
trial of Jesus.[1] The primary sources for Caiaphas' life are the New Testament
New Testament
and the writings of Josephus
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Pharisee
The Pharisees
Pharisees
/ˈfærəˌsiːz/ were at various times a political party, a social movement, and a school of thought in the Holy Land during the time of Second Temple
Second Temple
Judaism. After the destruction of the Second Temple
Second Temple
in 70 CE, Pharisaic beliefs became the foundational, liturgical and ritualistic basis for Rabbinic Judaism. Conflicts between Pharisees
Pharisees
and Sadducees
Sadducees
took place in the context of much broader and longstanding social and religious conflicts among Jews, made worse by the Roman conquest.[2] Another conflict was cultural, between those who favored Hellenization
Hellenization
(the Sadducees) and those who resisted it (the Pharisees)
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Jesus
Jesus[e] (c. 4 BC – c. AD 30 / 33), also referred to as Jesus
Jesus
of Nazareth
Nazareth
and Jesus
Jesus
Christ,[f] was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.[12] He is the central figure of Christianity
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Serpent (symbolism)
The serpent, or snake, is one of the oldest and most widespread mythological symbols. The word is derived from Latin serpens, a crawling animal or snake. Snakes have been associated with some of the oldest rituals known to humankind[1][2] and represent dual expression[3] of good and evil.[4] In some cultures, snakes were fertility symbols. For example, the Hopi people of North America
North America
performed an annual snake dance to celebrate the union of Snake
Snake
Youth (a Sky spirit) and Snake
Snake
Girl (an Underworld spirit) and to renew the fertility of Nature. During the dance, live snakes were handled and at the end of the dance the snakes were released into the fields to guarantee good crops
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Dragon
A dragon is a large, serpent-like legendary creature that appears in the folklore of many cultures around world. Beliefs about dragons vary drastically by region, but dragons in western cultures since the High Middle Ages
Middle Ages
have often been depicted as winged, horned, four-legged, and capable of breathing fire. Dragons
Dragons
in eastern cultures are usually depicted as wingless, four-legged, serpentine creatures with above-average intelligence. The earliest attested dragons resemble giant snakes. Dragon-like creatures are first described in the mythologies of the ancient Near East and appear in ancient Mesopotamian art and literature. Stories about storm-gods slaying giant serpents occur throughout nearly all Indo-European and Near Eastern mythologies
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Soul
In many religious, philosophical and mythological traditions, there is a belief in the incorporeal essence of a living being called the soul.[1] Soul
Soul
or psyche (Greek: "psychē", of "psychein", "to breathe") are the mental abilities of a living being: reason, character, feeling, consciousness, memory, perception, thinking, etc. Depending on the philosophical system, a soul can either be mortal or immortal.[2] In Judeo-Christianity, only human beings have immortal souls (although immortality is disputed within Judaism
Judaism
and may have been influenced by Plato[3]). For example, the Catholic theologian Thomas Aquinas
Thomas Aquinas
attributed "soul" (anima) to all organisms but argued that only human souls are immortal.[4] Other religions (most notably Hinduism
Hinduism
and Jainism) hold that all biological organisms have souls (atman, jiva) and a 'vital principle' (prana), as did Aristotle
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Sirocco
Sirocco, scirocco, /sɪˈrɒkoʊ/, jugo or, rarely, siroc (Catalan: Xaloc, Greek: Σορόκος, Spanish: Siroco, Occitan: Siròc, Eisseròc, Croatian: Jugo, literally southerly , Libyan Arabic: Ghibli, Egypt: khamsin, Tunisia: ch'hilli) is a Mediterranean
Mediterranean
wind that comes from the Sahara
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Bertran De Born
Bertran de Born
Bertran de Born
(Occitan: [beɾˈtɾan de ˈbɔɾn]; 1140s – by 1215) was a baron from the Limousin in France, and one of the major Occitan
Occitan
troubadours of the twelfth century.Contents1 Early life 2 Career 3 Later years and death 4 Works 5 Family 6 Later literary image 7 Notes 8 Works 9 References 10 External linksEarly life[edit] Bertran de Born
Bertran de Born
was the eldest son of Bertran de Born, lord of Hautefort
Hautefort
(Occitan: Autafòrt), and his wife Ermengardis. He had two younger brothers, Constantine and Itier. His father died in 1178, and Bertran succeeded him as lord of Hautefort. By this time, he was already married to his first wife, Raimonda, and had two sons. Hautefort
Hautefort
lies at the border between the Limousin and Périgord
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Alchemy
Alchemy
Alchemy
is a philosophical and protoscientific tradition practiced throughout Europe, Africa
Africa
and Asia. It aimed to purify, mature, and perfect certain objects.[1][2][n 1] Common aims were chrysopoeia, the transmutation of "base metals" (e.g., lead) into "noble metals" (particularly gold); the creation of an elixir of immortality; the creation of panaceas able to cure any disease; and the development of an alkahest, a universal solvent.[3] The perfection of the human body and soul was thought to permit or result from the alchemical magnum opus and, in the Hellenistic and western tradition, the achievement of gnosis.[2] In Europe, the creation of a philosopher's stone was variously connected with all of these projects. In English, the term is often limited to descriptions of European alchemy, but similar practices existed in the Far East, the Indian subcontinent, and the Muslim world
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Rash
A rash is a change of the human skin which affects its color, appearance, or texture. A rash may be localized in one part of the body, or affect all the skin. Rashes may cause the skin to change color, itch, become warm, bumpy, chapped, dry, cracked or blistered, swell, and may be painful. The causes, and therefore treatments for rashes, vary widely. Diagnosis must take into account such things as the appearance of the rash, other symptoms, what the patient may have been exposed to, occupation, and occurrence in family members. A rash can last 5 to 20 days, the diagnosis may confirm any number of conditions. The presence of a rash may aid diagnosis; associated signs and symptoms are diagnostic of certain diseases. For example, the rash in measles is an erythematous, morbilliform, maculopapular rash that begins a few days after the fever starts
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Dropsy
Edema, also spelled oedema or œdema, is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitium, located beneath the skin and in the cavities of the body, which can cause severe pain. Clinically, edema manifests as swelling. The amount of interstitial fluid is determined by the balance of fluid homeostasis; and the increased secretion of fluid into the interstitium. The word is from Greek οἴδημα oídēma meaning "swelling".[1]Contents1 Classifications1.1 Generalized 1.2 Organ-specific2 Mechanism 3 Treatment 4 Gallery 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksClassifications[edit] Cutaneous
Cutaneous
edema is referred to as "pitting" when, after pressure is applied to a small area, the indentation persists after the release of the pressure. Peripheral pitting edema, as shown in the illustration, is the more common type, resulting from water retention
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Leprosy
Leprosy, also known as Hansen's disease (HD), is a long-term infection by the bacterium Mycobacterium leprae
Mycobacterium leprae
or Mycobacterium lepromatosis.[3][4] Initially, infections are without symptoms and typically remain this way for 5 to 20 years.[3] Symptoms that develop include granulomas of the nerves, respiratory tract, skin, and eyes.[3] This may result in a lack of ability to feel pain, thus loss of parts of extremities due to repeated injuries or infection due to unnoticed wounds.[2] Weakness and poor eyesight may also be present.[2]
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