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Malaysian Chinese Association
The MALAYSIAN CHINESE ASSOCIATION (MCA) (simplified Chinese : 马来西亚华人公会; traditional Chinese : 馬來西亞華人公會; pinyin : Mǎláixīyà Huárén Gōnghuì; Jyutping
Jyutping
: maa5 loi4 sai1 aa3 waa4 jan4 gung1 wui2; Malay : Persatuan Cina Malaysia; formerly known as MALAYAN CHINESE ASSOCIATION) is a uni-racial political party in Malaysia
Malaysia
that seeks to represents the Malaysian Chinese
Malaysian Chinese
ethnicity; it is one of the three major component parties of the ruling coalition in Malaysia
Malaysia
called the Barisan Nasional (BN) in Malay, or National Front in English. Along with the largest and third largest component party in BN, i.e. United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) and Malaysian Indian Congress (MIC), MCA has a significant influence over the political arena in Malaysia
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Monarchies Of Malaysia
The MONARCHIES OF MALAYSIA refer to the constitutional monarchy system as practised in Malaysia
Malaysia
. The political system of Malaysia
Malaysia
is based on the Westminster parliamentary system with the features of a federation. Nine of the states of Malaysia
Malaysia
are constitutionally headed by traditional Malay rulers. The nine states are collectively referred to as the Malay States. State constitutions limit eligibility for the thrones to male Malay Muslim
Muslim
of royal descent. Seven are hereditary monarchies based on agnatic primogeniture ; they are Kedah
Kedah
, Kelantan , Johor
Johor
, Perlis
Perlis
, Pahang
Pahang
, Selangor
Selangor
and Terengganu
Terengganu

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Dewan Undangan Negeri
A STATE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY (Malay : Dewan Undangan Negeri, DUN; also known simply as STATE ASSEMBLY) is the legislative branch of the state governments of each of the 13 Malaysian states . Members of a state legislative assembly comprises elected representatives from single-member constituencies during state elections through the first-past-the-post system. The assemblies have powers to enact state laws as provided for by the Constitution of Malaysia
Malaysia
. The majority party in each assembly forms the state government, and the leader of the majority party becomes menteri besar (for states with hereditary rulers) or chief minister (for states without hereditary rulers) of the state
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Rukun Negara
The RUKUNEGARA or sometimes RUKUN NEGARA (Malay for "National Principles") is the Malaysian declaration of national philosophy instituted by royal proclamation on Merdeka Day , 1970, in reaction to a serious race riot known as the 13 May Incident which occurred in 1969. The incident proved at that time that Malaysian racial balance and stability was fragile. Immediately thereafter, the Malaysian government sought ways to foster unity among the various races in Malaysia. One of the methods used to encourage unity is the Rukunegara. The word Rukunegara can refer to the whole declaration, the words after the preamble (beginning Maka kami...) or the five principles alone. The formulation of the principles of the Rukun Negara was the efforts of the National Consultative Council (Majlis Perundingan Negara or MAPEN), headed by Tun Abdul Razak
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Yang Di-Pertuan Agong
The YANG DI-PERTUAN AGONG (literally "He Who Was Made Lord", Jawi : يڠ دڤرتوان اݢوڠ) is the monarch and head of state of Malaysia
Malaysia
. The office was established in 1957 when the Federation of Malaya (now Malaysia) gained independence from the United Kingdom. Malaysia
Malaysia
is a constitutional monarchy with an elected monarch as head of state. The Yang di-Pertuan Agong
Yang di-Pertuan Agong
is one of the few elected monarchs in the world. The concept of an elected monarch is believed to root back to the 7th century Kingdom of Srivijaya, where at that time the king was elected from city-states in Srivijaya. His queen consort is called Raja Permaisuri Agong
Raja Permaisuri Agong
. The couple are styled in English as "His Majesty " and "Her Majesty"
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Right-wing Politics
RIGHT-WING POLITICS hold that certain social orders and hierarchies are inevitable, natural, normal, or desirable, typically supporting this position on the basis of natural law , economics or tradition . (p693, 721) Hierarchy and inequality may be viewed as natural results of traditional social differences or the competition in market economies. The term right-wing can generally refer to "the conservative or reactionary section of a political party or system." The political terms Right and Left were first used during the French Revolution (1789–99), and referred to seating arrangements in the French parliament ; those who sat to the right of the chair of the parliamentary president were broadly supportive of the institutions of the monarchist Ancien Régime
Ancien Régime
. The original Right in France was formed as a reaction against the Left, and comprised those politicians supporting hierarchy, tradition, and clericalism
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Three Principles Of The People
The THREE PRINCIPLES OF THE PEOPLE, also translated as THREE PEOPLE\'S PRINCIPLES, SAN-MIN DOCTRINE, or TRIDEMISM is a political philosophy developed by Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
as part of a philosophy to make China
China
a free, prosperous, and powerful nation. The three principles are often translated into and summarized as nationalism, democracy, and the livelihood of the people
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West Malaysia
Coordinates : 4°0′N 102°30′E / 4.000°N 102.500°E / 4.000; 102.500 A map of Peninsular Malaysia. PENINSULAR MALAYSIA (Malay : Semenanjung Malaysia), also known as WEST MALAYSIA (formerly MALAYA), is the part of Malaysia
Malaysia
which lies on the Malay Peninsula
Malay Peninsula
and surrounding islands. Its area is 130,590 square kilometres (50,420 sq mi). It shares a land border with Thailand
Thailand
in the north. To the south is the island of Singapore
Singapore
. Across the Strait of Malacca
Strait of Malacca
to the west lies the Sumatra
Sumatra
Island ( Indonesia
Indonesia
) and across the South China Sea
South China Sea
to the east lies the Natuna Islands (Indonesia)
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Simplified Chinese Characters
SIMPLIFIED CHINESE CHARACTERS (简化字; jiǎnhuàzì) are standardized Chinese characters
Chinese characters
prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
Characters for use in mainland China . Along with traditional Chinese characters
Chinese characters
, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language . The government of the People\'s Republic of China
Republic of China
in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy. They are officially used in the People\'s Republic of China
Republic of China
and Singapore
Singapore

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Traditional Chinese Characters
TRADITIONAL CHINESE CHARACTERS (traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字; simplified Chinese : 正体字/繁体字; Pinyin : Zhèngtǐzì/Fántĭzì) are Chinese characters
Chinese characters
in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most commonly the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan
Taiwan
, of Hong Kong and Macau
Macau
or in the Kangxi Dictionary
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Malaysia
Coordinates : 2°30′N 112°30′E / 2.500°N 112.500°E / 2.500; 112.500 Malaysia Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: "Bersekutu Bertambah Mutu" "Unity Is Strength" ANTHEM: Negaraku My Country CAPITAL Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
3°8′N 101°41′E / 3.133°N 101.683°E / 3.133; 101.683
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Constitution Of Malaysia
The FEDERAL CONSTITUTION OF MALAYSIA, which came into force in 1957, is the supreme law of Malaysia
Malaysia
. The Federation was initially called the Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya
(in Malay, Persekutuan Tanah Melayu) and it adopted its present name, Malaysia, when the States of Sabah, Sarawak and Singapore (now independent) became part of the Federation. The Constitution establishes the Federation as a constitutional monarchy having the Yang di-Pertuan Agong
Yang di-Pertuan Agong
as the Head of State
Head of State
whose roles are largely ceremonial
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Law Of Malaysia
The LAW OF MALAYSIA is mainly based on the common law legal system. This was a direct result of the colonisation of Malaya , Sarawak
Sarawak
, and North Borneo
North Borneo
by Britain between the early 19th century to 1960s. The supreme law of the land—the Constitution of Malaysia
Constitution of Malaysia
—sets out the legal framework and rights of Malaysian citizens. Federal laws enacted by the Parliament of Malaysia
Malaysia
apply throughout the country. There are also state laws enacted by the State Legislative Assemblies which applies in the particular state. The constitution of Malaysia
Malaysia
also provides for a unique dual justice system—the secular laws (criminal and civil) and sharia laws
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Malay Language
Latin ( Malay alphabet ) Arabic script
Arabic script
( Jawi alphabet ) Thai alphabet (in Thailand)
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Pinyin
HANYU PINYIN ROMANIZATION (simplified Chinese : 汉语拼音; traditional Chinese : 漢語拼音; literally: "Han Chinese spelling of sounds"), often abbreviated to PINYIN, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
in mainland China
China
and to some extent in Taiwan
Taiwan
. It is often used to teach Standard (Mandarin) Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters
Chinese characters
. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones . Pinyin
Pinyin
without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet , and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters. The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang , based on earlier form romanizations of Chinese
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Jyutping
JYUTPING (Chinese : 粵拼; Jyutping: Jyut6ping3; Cantonese pronunciation: ) is a romanisation system for Cantonese
Cantonese
developed by the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong (LSHK), an academic group, in 1993. Its formal name is THE LINGUISTIC SOCIETY OF HONG KONG CANTONESE ROMANISATION SCHEME. The LSHK promotes the use of this romanisation system. The name Jyutping
Jyutping
(itself the Jyutping
Jyutping
romanisation of its Chinese name, 粵拼) is a contraction consisting of the first Chinese characters of the terms Jyut6jyu5 (粵語, meaning " Cantonese
Cantonese
speech") and ping3jam1 (拼音 "phonetic alphabet")
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