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Malayan Peacock-pheasant
Pavo malacensis Scopoli, 1786 Polyplectron bicalcaratum
Polyplectron bicalcaratum
(non Linnaeus, 1758: preoccupied)[verification needed] Polyplectron
Polyplectron
malacense malacense (Scopoli, 1786)The Malayan peacock-pheasant
Malayan peacock-pheasant
( Polyplectron
Polyplectron
malacense) also known as crested peacock-pheasant or Malaysian peacock-pheasant, is a medium-sized pheasant of the galliform family Phasianidae. The closely related Bornean peacock-pheasant
Bornean peacock-pheasant
(P. schleiermacheri) was formerly included here as a subspecies, but as understood today, P. malacense is monotypic.[2]Contents1 Description 2 Systematics 3 Ecology3.1 Reproduction 3.2 Status and conservation4 Footnotes 5 References 6 External linksDescription[edit]Head of adult maleIt is one of the shortest-tailed peacock-pheasants
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Jurong Bird Park
Jurong
Jurong
Bird Park is an aviary and tourist attraction in Jurong, Singapore. The bird park, managed by Wildlife Reserves Singapore, covers an area of 0.2 square kilometres (49 acres) on the western slope of Jurong
Jurong
Hill, the highest point in the Jurong
Jurong
region. It was reported by Wildlife Reserves Singapore
Singapore
on 1 June 2016 that Jurong
Jurong
Bird Park will cease operations and be relocated to 80 Mandai Lake Road, 729826 in year 2020 with a new name for the Bird Park
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Intron
An intron is any nucleotide sequence within a gene that is removed by RNA splicing
RNA splicing
during maturation of the final RNA product.[1][2] The term intron refers to both the DNA
DNA
sequence within a gene and the corresponding sequence in RNA transcripts.[3] Sequences that are joined together in the final mature RNA after RNA splicing
RNA splicing
are exons. Introns are found in the genes of most organisms and many viruses, and can be located in a wide range of genes, including those that generate proteins, ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and transfer RNA (tRNA). When proteins are generated from intron-containing genes, RNA splicing
RNA splicing
takes place as part of the RNA processing
RNA processing
pathway that follows transcription and precedes translation. The word intron is derived from the term intragenic region, i.e. a region inside a gene
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Remiges
Flight feathers (Pennae volatus) [1] are the long, stiff, asymmetrically shaped, but symmetrically paired pennaceous feathers on the wings or tail of a bird; those on the wings are called remiges (/ˈrɛmɪdʒiːz/), singular remex (/ˈriːmɛks/), while those on the tail are called rectrices (/rɛkˈtraɪsiːs/), singular rectrix (/ˈrɛktrɪks/). The primary function of the flight feathers is to aid in the generation of both thrust and lift, thereby enabling flight. The flight feathers of some birds have evolved to perform additional functions, generally associated with territorial displays, courtship rituals or feeding methods
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Wing Covert
A covert feather or tectrix on a bird is one of a set of feathers, called coverts (or tectrices), which, as the name implies, cover other feathers. The coverts help to smooth airflow over the wings and tail.Contents1 Ear coverts 2 Tail coverts 3 Wing coverts 4 ReferencesEar coverts[edit] The ear coverts are small feathers behind the bird's eye which cover the ear opening (the ear of a bird has no external features) Tail coverts[edit]A rear view of an Indian peacock's true tail and elongated uppertail covert feathersThe uppertail and undertail coverts cover the base of the tail feathers above and below. Sometimes these coverts are more specialised. The "tail" of a peacock is made of very elongated uppertail coverts. Wing coverts[edit] The upperwing coverts fall into two groups: those on the inner wing, which overlay the secondary flight feathers, known as the secondary coverts, and those on the outerwing, which overlay the primary flight feathers, the primary coverts
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Down (feather)
The down of birds is a layer of fine feathers found under the tougher exterior feathers. Very young birds are clad only in down. Powder down is a specialized type of down found only in a few groups of birds. Down is a fine thermal insulator and padding, used in goods such as jackets, bedding (duvets), pillows and sleeping bags
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Hatchling
In oviparious biology, a hatchling is a newly hatched fish, amphibian, reptile, or bird.[1] A group of mammals called monotremes lay eggs, and their young are hatchlings as well.Contents1 Fish 2 Amphibians 3 Reptiles3.1 As pets4 Birds 5 ReferencesFish[edit] Fish
Fish
hatchlings generally do not receive parental care, similar to reptiles. Like reptiles, fish hatchlings can be affected by xenobiotic compounds. For example, exposure to xenoestrogens can feminize fish.[2] As well, hatchlings raised in water with high levels of carbon dioxide demonstrate unusual behaviour, such as being attracted to the scent of predators
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Chestnut (color)
Chestnut
Chestnut
is a color, a medium reddish shade of brown (displayed right), and is named after the nut of the chestnut tree. An alternate name for the color is badious.[2] Indian red is a similar but separate and distinct color from chestnut. Chestnut
Chestnut
is also a very dark tan that almost appears brown.Contents1 Etymology 2 Variations of chestnut2.1 Deep chestnut3 Chestnut
Chestnut
in nature 4 Chestnut
Chestnut
in human culture 5 See also 6 ReferencesEtymology[edit] The name chestnut derives from the color of the nut of the chestnut tree
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MtDNA
Human mitochondrial DNA
Human mitochondrial DNA
with the 37 genes on their respective H- and L-strands.Electron microscopy reveals mitochondrial DNA
DNA
in discrete foci. Bars: 200 nm. (A) Cytoplasmic section after immunogold labelling with anti-DNA; gold particles marking mt DNA
DNA
are found near the mitochondrial membrane (black dots in upper right). (B) Whole mount view of cytoplasm after extraction with CSK buffer and immunogold labelling with anti-DNA; mt DNA
DNA
(marked by gold particles) resists extraction. From Iborra et al., 2004.[2]Mitochondrial DNA
DNA
(mt DNA
DNA
or mDNA)[3] is the DNA
DNA
located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
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Cytochrome B
Cytochrome
Cytochrome
b is a protein found in the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells. It functions as part of the electron transport chain and is the main subunit of transmembrane cytochrome bc1 and b6f complexes.[1][2]Contents1 Function 2 Structure 3 Use in phylogenetics 4 Clinical significance 5 Human genes 6 References 7 External linksFunction[edit] In the mitochondrion of eukaryotes and in aerobic prokaryotes, cytochrome b is a component of respiratory chain complex III (EC 1.10.2.2) — also known as the bc1 complex or ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase. In plant chloroplasts and cyanobacteria, there is an analogous protein, cytochrome b6, a component of the plastoquinone-plastocyanin reductase (EC 1.10.99.1), also known as the b6f complex. These complexes are involved in electron transport, the pumping of protons to create a proton-motive force (PMF). This proton gradient is used for the generation of ATP
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D-loop
In molecular biology, a displacement loop or D-loop is a DNA
DNA
structure where the two strands of a double-stranded DNA
DNA
molecule are separated for a stretch and held apart by a third strand of DNA. An R-loop
R-loop
is similar to a D-loop, but in this case the third strand is RNA
RNA
rather than DNA. The third strand has a base sequence which is complementary to one of the main strands and pairs with it, thus displacing the other complementary main strand in the region. Within that region the structure is thus a form of triple-stranded DNA
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Nuclear DNA
Nuclear DNA, or nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid (nDNA), is the DNA contained within the nucleus of a eukaryotic organism.[1] Nuclear DNA encodes for the majority of the genome in eukaryotes, with mitochondrial DNA
DNA
and plastid DNA
DNA
coding for the rest. Nuclear DNA adheres to Mendelian inheritance, with information coming from two parents, one male and one female, rather than matrilineally, as in mitochondrial DNA.[2]Contents1 Structure 2 Mitochondrial DNA 3 Forensics 4 Cell division 5 Replication 6 Gallery 7 See also 8 ReferencesStructure[edit] Nuclear DNA
DNA
is a nucleic acid, a polymeric biomolecule or biopolymer, found in the nucleus of eukaryotic organisms. Its structure is a double helix, with two strands wound around each other. This double helix structure was first described by Francis Crick
Francis Crick
and James D. Watson (1953) using data collected by Rosalind Franklin
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Ovomucoid
Ovomucoid
Ovomucoid
is a protein found in egg whites. It is a trypsin inhibitor with three protein domains of the Kazal domain
Kazal domain
family.[2][3] The homologs from chickens (Gallus gallus) and especially turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) are best characterized. It is not the same as ovomucin, another egg white protein. Chicken
Chicken
ovomucoid, also known as Gal d 1, is a known allergen. It is the protein most often causing egg allergy. At least four IgE epitopes have been identified.[4] Three other egg white proteins are also identified as allergenic: ovalbumin (Gal d 2), ovotransferrin (Gal d 3) and lysozyme (Gal d 4).[5] References[edit]^ Horn JR, Ramaswamy S, Murphy KP (August 2003). "Structure and energetics of protein-protein interactions: the role of conformational heterogeneity in OMTKY3 binding to serine proteases". Journal of Molecular Biology
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DNA Sequence
A nucleic acid sequence is a succession of letters that indicate the order of nucleotides within a DNA
DNA
(using GACT) or RNA
RNA
(GACU) molecule. By convention, sequences are usually presented from the 5' end to the 3' end. For DNA, the sense strand is used. Because nucleic acids are normally linear (unbranched) polymers, specifying the sequence is equivalent to defining the covalent structure of the entire molecule. For this reason, the nucleic acid sequence is also termed the primary structure. The sequence has capacity to represent information. Biological deoxyribonucleic acid represents the information which directs the functions of a living thing. Nucleic acids also have a secondary structure and tertiary structure. Primary structure
Primary structure
is sometimes mistakenly referred to as primary sequence
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Rectrices
Flight feathers (Pennae volatus) [1] are the long, stiff, asymmetrically shaped, but symmetrically paired pennaceous feathers on the wings or tail of a bird; those on the wings are called remiges (/ˈrɛmɪdʒiːz/), singular remex (/ˈriːmɛks/), while those on the tail are called rectrices (/rɛkˈtraɪsiːs/), singular rectrix (/ˈrɛktrɪks/). The primary function of the flight feathers is to aid in the generation of both thrust and lift, thereby enabling flight. The flight feathers of some birds have evolved to perform additional functions, generally associated with territorial displays, courtship rituals or feeding methods
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Basal (phylogenetics)
In phylogenetics, basal is the direction of the base (or root) of a rooted phylogenetic tree or cladogram. Clade
Clade
C may be described as basal within a larger clade D if its root is directly linked (adjacent) to the root of D. If C is a basal clade within D that has the lowest taxonomic rank of all basal clades within D, C may be described as the basal taxon of that rank within D. While there must always be two or more equally basal clades sprouting from the root of every cladogram, those clades may differ widely in rank[n 1] and/or species diversity. Greater diversification may be associated with more evolutionary innovation, but ancestral characters should not be imputed to the members of a less species-rich basal clade without additional evidence, as there can be no assurance such an assumption is valid.[1][2][3][n 2] In general, clade A is more basal than clade B if B is a subgroup of the sister group of A
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