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Malassezia Furfur
Malassezia
Malassezia
furfur is a species of fungus that is naturally found on the skin surfaces of humans and is associated with seborrhoeic dermatitis.[1] References[edit]^ Schmidt, A. (1996). " Malassezia
Malassezia
furfur: a fungus belonging to the physiological skin flora and its relevance in skin disorders". Cutis. 59 (1): 21–24. ISSN 0011-4162
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Taxonomy (biology)
Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species
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List Of ICD-9 Codes 001–139
The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is the international "standard diagnostic tool for epidemiology, health management and clinical purposes". Its full official name is International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems.[1] The ICD is maintained by the World Health Organization
World Health Organization
(WHO), the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations System.[2] The ICD is designed as a health care classification system, providing a system of diagnostic codes for classifying diseases, including nuanced classifications of a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances, and external causes of injury or disease. This system is designed to map health conditions to corresponding generic categories together with specific variations, assigning for these a designated code, up to six characters long
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Tinea Manuum
Tinea manuum (or tinea manus[1]) is a fungal infection of the hand.[2] It is typically more aggressive than tinea pedis but similar in look. Itching, burning, cracking, and scaling are observable and may be transmitted sexually or otherwise, whether or not symptoms are present. Alternatively, it may be caused by an allergic reaction, known as a "dermatophytid reaction". "For example, a fungal infection on the foot may cause an itchy, bumpy rash to appear on the fingers. These eruptions (dermatophytids, or identity or id reactions) are allergic reactions to the fungus. They do not result from touching the infected area. The eruptions may appear on many different areas of the body at once."[3] Treatment[edit] It can usually be treated with long-term use of a topical antifungal medications such as selenium sulfide shampoo
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Tinea Imbricata
Tinea imbricata
Tinea imbricata
(also known as "Tokelau"[1] and in parts of Indonesia as “Kaskado”) is a superficial fungal infection of the skin limited to southwest Polynesia, Melanesia, Southeast Asia, India, and Central America.[1]:303[2]The skin lesions are often itchy, and mainly in the torso and limbs.[3] The name is derived from the Latin for "tiled" (imbricata) since the lesions are often lamellar.[4] It is often treated with griseofulvin or terbinafine.[4] Susceptibility to tinea imbricata is probably inherited as an autosomal recessive trait.[5][6] Tinea imbricata
Tinea imbricata
is associated with Trichophyton concentricum.[4] See also[edit]Skin lesion List of cutaneous conditionsReferences[edit]^ a b James WD, Berger TG, et al. (2006). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: clinical Dermatology. Saunders Elsevier. ISBN 0-7216-2921-0.  ^ Rapini RP, Bolognia JL, Jorizzo JL (2007). Dermatology: 2-Volume Set. St
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Dermatophytid
Dermatophytids are fungus-free disseminated skin lesions resulting from induced sensitization in patients with ringworm infections.[1]:301 The most common dermatophytid is an inflammation in the hands resulting from a fungus infection of the feet. Dermatophytids normally disappear when the primary ringworm infection is treated.[citation needed] Dermatophytids may resemble erythema nodosum.[citation needed] See also[edit]Candidid Skin lesionNotes[edit]^ James, William D.; Berger, Timothy G.; et al. (2006). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: clinical Dermatology
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Fungi
Dikarya
Dikarya
(inc. Deuteromycota)AscomycotaPezizomycotina Saccharomycotina TaphrinomycotinaBasidiomycotaAgaricomycotina Pucciniomycotina UstilaginomycotinaSubphyla incertae sedisEntomophthoromycotina Kickxellomycotina Mucoromycotina ZoopagomycotinaA fungus (plural: fungi[3] or funguses[4]) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. These organisms are classified as a kingdom, Fungi, which is separate from the other eukaryotic life kingdoms of plants and animals. A characteristic that places fungi in a different kingdom from plants, bacteria, and some protists is chitin in their cell walls. Similar to animals, fungi are heterotrophs; they acquire their food by absorbing dissolved molecules, typically by secreting digestive enzymes into their environment. Fungi do not photosynthesise
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Tinea Incognito
Tinea incognito
Tinea incognito
is a fungal infection (mycosis) of the skin masked and often exacerbated by application of a topical immunosuppressive agent. The usual agent is a topical corticosteroid (topical steroid). As the skin fungal infection has lost some of the characteristic features due to suppression of inflammation, it may have a poorly defined border and florid growth. Occasionally, secondary infection with bacteria occurs with concurrent pustules and impetigo.[1]Contents1 Diagnosis 2 Cause 3 Treatment 4 ReferencesDiagnosis[edit] Clinical suspicion arises especially if the eruption is on the face, ankle, legs, or groin. A history of topical steroid or immunosuppressive agent is noted. Confirmation is with a skin scraping and either fungal culture and/or microscopic exam with potassium hydroxide solution
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Ascomycota
Ascomycota
Ascomycota
is a division or phylum of the kingdom Fungi
Fungi
that, together with the Basidiomycota, form the subkingdom Dikarya. Its members are commonly known as the sac fungi or ascomycetes. They are the largest phylum of Fungi, with over 64,000 species.[2] The defining feature of this fungal group is the "ascus" (from Greek: ἀσκός (askos), meaning "sac" or "wineskin"), a microscopic sexual structure in which nonmotile spores, called ascospores, are formed. However, some species of the Ascomycota
Ascomycota
are asexual, meaning that they do not have a sexual cycle and thus do not form asci or ascospores
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Hair
Hair
Hair
is a protein filament that grows from follicles found in the dermis. Hair
Hair
is one of the defining characteristics of mammals. The human body, apart from areas of glabrous skin, is covered in follicles which produce thick terminal and fine vellus hair
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Human Skin
The human skin is the outer covering of the body. In humans, it is the largest organ of the integumentary system. The skin has up to seven layers of ectodermal tissue and guards the underlying muscles, bones, ligaments and internal organs.[1] Human
Human
skin is similar to that of most other mammals, and human skin is very similar to pig skin.[2][3] Though nearly all human skin is covered with hair follicles, it can appear hairless. There are two general types of skin, hairy and glabrous skin (hairless).[4] The adjective cutaneous literally means "of the skin" (from Latin
Latin
cutis, skin). Because it interfaces with the environment, skin plays an important immunity role in protecting the body against pathogens[5] and excessive water loss.[6] Its other functions are insulation, temperature regulation, sensation, synthesis of vitamin D, and the protection of vitamin B folates. Severely damaged skin will try to heal by forming scar tissue
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Trichophyton
Trichophyton
Trichophyton
is a genus of fungi, which includes the parasitic varieties that cause tinea, including athlete's foot, ringworm, jock itch, and similar infections of the nail, beard, skin and scalp. Trichophyton
Trichophyton
fungi are molds characterized by the development of both smooth-walled macro- and microconidia. Macroconidia are mostly borne laterally directly on the hyphae or on short pedicels, and are thin- or thick-walled, clavate to fusiform, and range from 4 to 8 by 8 to 50 μm in size. Macroconidia are few or absent in many species. Microconidia
Microconidia
are spherical, pyriform to clavate or of irregular shape, and range from 2 to 3 by 2 to 4 μm in size.Contents1 Species and their habitat preference 2 Effect on humans 3 References 4 External linksSpecies and their habitat preference[edit] Geophilic fungi prefer to live in soil
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ICD-10 Chapter I
Contents1 I00–I99 – Diseases of the circulatory system1.1 (I00–I02) Acute rheumatic fever 1.2 (I05–I09) Chronic rheumatic heart diseases 1.3 (I10–I15) Hypertensive diseases 1.4 (I20–I25) Ischemic heart diseases 1.5 (I26–I28) Pulmonary heart disease
Pulmonary heart disease
and diseases of pulmonary circulation 1.6 (I30–I52) Other forms of heart disease1.6.1 Pericardium 1.6.2
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Mesomycetozoea
Amoebidiales Dermocystida IchthyophonidaSynonyms Ichthyosporea
Ichthyosporea
Cavalier-Smith 1998[1]The Mesomycetozoea
Mesomycetozoea
(or DRIP clade, or Ichthyosporea) are a small group of Opisthokonta
Opisthokonta
in Eukarya
Eukarya
(formerly protists), mostly parasites of fish and other animals.Contents1 Significance 2 Terminology 3 Taxonomy 4 ReferencesSignificance[edit] They are not particularly distinctive morphologically, appearing in host tissues as enlarged spheres or ovals containing spores, and most were originally classified in various groups as fungi, protozoa, or colorless algae. However, they form a coherent group on molecular trees, closely related to both animals and fungi and so of interest to biologists studying their origins
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Basidiomycota
Basidiomycota
Basidiomycota
(/bəˌsɪdi.oʊmaɪˈkoʊtə/[2]) is one of two large divisions that, together with the Ascomycota, constitute the subkingdom Dikarya
Dikarya
(often referred to as the "higher fungi") within the kingdom Fungi. More specifically the Basidiomycota
Basidiomycota
include these groups: mushrooms, puffballs, stinkhorns, bracket fungi, other polypores, jelly fungi, boletes, chanterelles, earth stars, smuts, bunts, rusts, mirror yeasts, and the human pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus. Basidiomycota
Basidiomycota
are filamentous fungi composed of hyphae (except for basidiomycota-yeast; refer yeast for more information) and reproduce sexually via the formation of specialized club-shaped end cells called basidia that normally bear external meiospores (usually four). These specialized spores are called basidiospores
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Exobasidiomycetes
The Exobasidiomycetes
Exobasidiomycetes
are a class of fungi sometimes associated with the abnormal outgrowths of plant tissues known as galls. The class includes Exobasidium camelliae Shirai, the camellia leaf gall and Exobasidium vaccinii
Exobasidium vaccinii
Erikss, the leaf and flower gall. There are eight orders in the Exobasidiomycetes, including the Ceraceosorales, Doassansiales, Entylomatales, Exobasidiales, Georgefischeriales, Malasseziales, Microstromatales and the Tilletiales.[2] Four of the eight orders include smut fungi. The families Ceraceosoraceae and Malasseziaceae were formally validated in 2009 for the orders Ceraceosorales and Malasseziales, respectively.[3] References[edit]^ Begerow D, Stoll M, Bauer R. (2007). "A phylogenetic hypothesis of Ustilaginomycotina
Ustilaginomycotina
based upon multiple gene analyses and morphological data". Mycologia
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