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Mahmud Pasha Angelovic
Mahmud Pasha
Pasha
Angelović (Serbian: Махмуд-паша Анђеловић/Mahmud-paša Anđelović; Turkish: Veli Mahmud Paşa; 1420–1474) was the Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
from 1456 to 1466 and again from 1472 to 1474, who also wrote Persian and Turkish poems under the pseudonym Adni (the "Eden-like").[1] Born in Serbia, he was a descendant of the Byzantine Angelos family that had left Thessaly
Thessaly
in 1394. As a child, he was abducted by the Ottomans according to the devşirme system and raised as a Muslim
Muslim
in Edirne. A capable soldier, he was married to a daughter of Sultan Mehmed II. After distinguishing himself at the Siege of Belgrade (1456), he was raised to the position of Grand Vizier as a reward, succeeding Zagan Pasha
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Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman Empire (/ˈɒtəmən/; Devlet-i ʿAlīye-i ʿOsmānīye[dn 5]), also historically known in Western Europe
Europe
as the Turkish Empire[8] or simply Turkey,[9] was a state that controlled much of southeastern Europe, western Asia and northern Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia
Anatolia
in the town of Söğüt (modern-day Bilecik Province) by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman.[10] After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman Beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire
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Içoğlan
The term iç oğlan ("Inner [Palace] Boy") refers to the boy servants or pages who had been recruited according to the devşirme system in the Ottoman Empire, and who worked in the Enderûn, that is, the Inner Palace, one of the three parts of Topkapı Palace
Topkapı Palace
in Istanbul. In other words, they were the Inner Palace servants, the staff serving in the private apartments of the Sultan
Sultan
and his family. The same term was also used for certain members of the Janissaries. As pages the Iç oğlans were trained to be courtiers and also in the arts of administrator and commander, with many being Albanians.[1] References[edit]^ Skendi, Stavro (1967). The Albanian national awakening. Princeton: Princeton University Press. p. 21. ISBN 9781400847761. Sources[edit]Ed. (1986). "Ič-Og̲h̲lani̊". The Encyclopedia of Islam, New Edition, Volume III: H–Iram. Leiden and New York: BRILL. p. 1006
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Thessaly
Thessaly
Thessaly
(Greek: Θεσσαλία, Thessalía; ancient Thessalian: Πετθαλία, Petthalía) is a traditional geographic and modern administrative region of Greece, comprising most of the ancient region of the same name. Before the Greek Dark Ages, Thessaly
Thessaly
was known as Aeolia (Greek: Αἰολία, Aíolía), and appears thus in Homer's Odyssey. Thessaly
Thessaly
became part of the modern Greek state in 1881, after four and a half centuries of Ottoman rule. Since 1987 it has formed one of the country's 13 regions[2] and is further (since the Kallikratis reform of 2010) sub-divided into 5 regional units and 25 municipalities. The capital of the region is Larissa
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Laonikos Chalkokondyles
Laonikos Chalkokondyles, Latinized as Laonicus Chalcondyles (Greek: Λαόνικος Χαλκοκονδύλης, from λαός "people", νικᾶν "to be victorious", an anagram of Nikolaos which bears the same meaning; c. 1430 – c. 1470), was a Byzantine
Byzantine
Greek historian from Athens. He is known for his Histories in ten books, which record the last 150 years of the Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire.Contents1 Life 2 Portrayals in fiction 3 The Histories of Chalkokondyles 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksLife[edit] Chalkokondyles was a member of a prominent family of Athens, which at the time was ruled by the Florentine Acciaioli family. His father George was a kinsman of Maria Melissene, the wife of Duke Antonio I Acciaioli
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Kritoboulos
Michael Critobulus (Greek: Μιχαήλ Κριτόβουλος, c. 1410 – c. 1470) was a Greek politician, scholar and historian. He is known as the author of a history of the Ottoman conquest of the Eastern Roman Empire
Eastern Roman Empire
under Sultan Mehmet II. Steven Runciman
Steven Runciman
included Critobulus' work, along with the writings of Doukas, Laonicus Chalcondyles and George Sphrantzes, as one of the principal Greek sources for the Fall of Constantinople
Fall of Constantinople
in 1453.[1] Critobulus is a Romanization
Romanization
of the name, which is alternatively transliterated as Kritoboulos, Kritovoulos, Critoboulos; sometimes with Critobulus' provenance affixed (e.g. Critobulus of Imbros).Contents1 Biography 2 Works 3 Editions 4 ReferencesBiography[edit] Critobulus' birth name was Michael Critopoulos
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Smederevo
Smederevo
Smederevo
(Serbian Cyrillic: Смедерево, pronounced [smêdereʋo] ( listen)) is a city and the administrative center of the Podunavlje District
Podunavlje District
in eastern Serbia. It is situated on the right bank of the Danube, about 45 kilometres (28 miles) downstream of the capital, Belgrade. According to official results of the 2011 census, the city has a population of 64,105, and 108,209 people live in its administrative area. Its history starts in the 1st century BC, with the conquerings of the Roman Empire, when there existed a town called Vinceia
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Prisoner Of War
A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict
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Taşköprüzade
Taşköprüzade Ahmet (born 1494, died 1561) was an Ottoman historian and chronicler. He was educated in Ankara, Bursa, and Istanbul, after which he began teaching at a medrese in Dimetoka in 1525. In 1527 he was promoted to teaching in Istanbul. He was appointed as the qadi of Istanbul
Istanbul
in 1551 and retired from the position in 1554, after which he took to dictating his works.[1] Works[edit]Shaqāʾiq al-Nuʿmāniyya fī ʿUlemāʾal-Dawla al-ʿUthmāniyya - a biographical dictionary of Ottoman-era scholars, beginning with the founding of the state and culminating with the scholars of the era of Suleyman I. Miftāḥ al-Saʿāda Nawādir al-Akhbār fī Manāqib al-AkhyārReferences[edit]^ Barbara Fleming; Franz Babinger; Christine Woodhead (2009). Bearman, P.; Bianquis, Th.; Bosworth, C.E.; van Donzel, E.; Heinrich, W.P., eds. Ṭas̲h̲köprüzāde. In: Encyclopaedia of Islam (New ed.). Leiden: E.J. Brill
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Aşık Çelebi
Aşık Çelebi
Aşık Çelebi
("Gentleman Bard" in Turkish) was the name of Pir Mehmed ("Mehmed the Pir"; 1520–1572), an Ottoman biographer, poet, and translator. Born in Prizren, he served as kadi (judge) in many towns of the Rumelia. His major work Senses of Poets (Meşairü'ş-Şuara) of 1568 is of major importance.Contents1 Life and work1.1 Sexual orientation2 See also 3 Notes 4 ReferencesLife and work[edit] Çelebi was born in Prizren,[a] Kosovo.[1] His birth name was Pir Mehmed, and descended from a seyyid family. After his father's death in 1535 (941 in Ottoman calendar) he departed for Filibe and later to Istanbul. He studied in a medrese in Istambul under best tutors of his time and received an excellent education. His first civil servant position was that of a court secretary in Bursa. There he was also a trustee of a vakif.[1] He returned to Istambul in 1546
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Kadıasker
A kazasker or kadıasker (Ottoman Turkish: قاضی عسكر‎, ḳāḍī'asker, "military judge") was a chief judge in the Ottoman Empire, so named originally because his jurisdiction extended to the cases of soldiers, who were later tried only by their own officers.[1][better source needed] Two kazaskers were appointed, called Rumeli Kazaskeri and Anadolu Kazaskeri, having their jurisdiction respectively over the European and the Asiatic part of the Empire. They were subordinated to the Grand Vizier, later Şeyhülislam, and had no jurisdiction over the city of Constantinople. Moreover, they attended the meetings at the Imperial Council.[2] A Kazasker
Kazasker
handled appeals to the decisions of kadı's, had the power to overrule these, and suggested kadı candidates to the Grand Vizier. See also[edit]Kadı List of Ottoman titles and appellationsReferences[edit]^ Webster (1913), sub voce ^ Mantran (1995), pp
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Şeyhülislam
Shaykh al-Islām
Shaykh al-Islām
(Arabic: شيخ الإسلام‎, Šayḫ al-Islām; Ottoman Turkish: Şeyḫülislām‎) was used in the classical era as an honorific title for outstanding scholars of the Islamic sciences.[1]:399[2] It first emerged in Khurasan
Khurasan
towards the end of the 4th Islamic century.[1]:399 In the central and western lands of Islam, it was an informal title given to jurists whose fatwas were particularly influential, while in the east it came to be conferred by rulers to ulama who played various official roles but were not generally muftis. Sometimes, as in the case of Ibn Taymiyya, the use of the title was subject to controversy
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Enderûn
Enderûn (Ottoman Turkish: اندرون‎, from Persian andarûn, "inside") was the term used in the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
to designate the "Interior Service" of the Imperial Court, concerned with the private service of the Ottoman Sultans, as opposed to the state-administrative "Exterior Service" (Birûn).[1] Its name derives from the location of the Sultan's apartments in the inner courts of the Topkapi Palace; its head was the Kapi Agha.[1] The Inner Service was divided into four departments
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Turkish People
  Turkey
Turkey
63,589,988–65,560,701 (2008 est. of 2015 pop.)[1]   Northern Cyprus
Northern Cyprus
280,000 d[›][2][3] Germany 2,852,000 (incl
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Mehmed The Conqueror
Mehmed II (Ottoman Turkish: محمد ثانى‎, Meḥmed-i sānī; Modern Turkish: II. Mehmet Turkish pronunciation: [ˈikind͡ʒi meh.met]; 30 March 1432 – 3 May 1481), commonly known as Muhammad al- Fatih
Fatih
the Conqueror (Turkish: Fatih
Fatih
Sultan
Sultan
Mehmet), was an Ottoman Sultan
Sultan
who ruled first for a short time from August 1444 to September 1446, and later from February 1451 to May 1481. At the age of 21, he conquered Constantinople
Constantinople
(modern-day Istanbul) and brought an end to the Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire. Mehmed continued his conquests in Anatolia
Anatolia
with its reunification and in Southeast Europe
Europe
as far west as Bosnia. Mehmed is considered a hero in modern-day Turkey
Turkey
and parts of the wider Muslim world
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Lazar Branković
Lazar Branković
Lazar Branković
(Serbian Cyrillic: Лазар Бранковић; c. 1421 – 20 February 1458) was a Serbian despot, prince of Rascia from 1456 to 1458. He was the third son of Đurađ Branković
Đurađ Branković
and his wife Eirene Kantakouzene. He was succeeded by his elder brother, despot Stefan III Branković.Contents1 Biography 2 Family 3 Ancestry 4 Marriage and children 5 See also 6 Notes 7 ReferencesBiography[edit] Both Grgur and Stefan, his older brothers, were blinded by orders of Murad II
Murad II
in 1441. Lazar apparently became the heir to their father as the only son not to be handicapped. Đurađ died on 24 December 1456. Lazar succeeded him as planned.[1] According to Fine, his brief reign mostly included family quarrels with his mother and siblings. In 1457, Lazar gave an oath of subservience to Mehmed II, son and successor of Murad II
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