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Maginot Line
Paul Painlevé, Colonel TricaudNamed after André Maginot
André Maginot
(French Minister of War, 1915–1920s)In use 1935–1969Materials Concrete, steel, ironBattles/warsWorld War II Battle of France
Battle of France
(1940) Operation Nordwind
Operation Nordwind
(1945)The Maginot Line
Maginot Line
(French: Ligne Maginot, IPA: [liɲ maʒino]), named after the French Minister of War André Maginot, was a line of concrete fortifications, obstacles, and weapon installations built by France in the 1930s to deter invasion by Germany and force them to move around the fortifications
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Foot (unit)
The foot (pl. feet; abbreviation: ft; symbol: ′, the prime symbol) is a unit of length in the imperial and US customary systems of measurement. Since 1959, both units have been defined by international agreement as equivalent to 0.3048 meters exactly. In both systems, the foot comprises 12 inches and three feet compose a yard. Historically the "foot" was a part of many local systems of units, including the Greek, Roman, Chinese, French, and English systems. It varied in length from country to country, from city to city, and sometimes from trade to trade
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Édouard Herriot
Édouard Marie Herriot (French: [edwaʁ ɛʁjo]; 5 July 1872 – 26 March 1957) was a French Radical politician of the Third Republic who served three times as Prime Minister and for many years as President of the Chamber of Deputies.[1] He was leader of the first Cartel des Gauches. Hérriot was born at Troyes, France on 5 July 1872. He served as Mayor of Lyon
Lyon
from 1905 until his death, except for a brief period from 1940 to 1945, when he was exiled to Germany for opposing the Vichy regime. As mayor, Herriot improved relations between municipal government and local unions, increased public assistance funds, and launched an urban renewal programme,[2] amongst other measures
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Raymond Poincaré
Raymond Nicolas Landry Poincaré (French pronunciation: ​[ʁɛmɔ̃ pwɛ̃kaʁe]; 20 August 1860 – 15 October 1934) was a French statesman who served three times as 58th Prime Minister of France, and as President of France
President of France
from 1913 to 1920. He was a conservative leader, primarily committed to political and social stability.[1] Trained in law, Poincaré was elected as a Deputy in 1887 and served in the cabinets of Dupuy and Ribot. In 1902, he co-founded the Democratic Republican Alliance, the most important centre-right party under the Third Republic, becoming Prime Minister in 1912 and President in 1913. He was noted for his strongly anti-German attitudes, and twice visited Russia
Russia
to maintain strategic ties
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Eric Phipps
Sir Eric Clare Edmund Phipps GCB GCMG GCVO PC (27 October 1875 – 13 August 1945) was a British diplomat.Contents1 Family 2 Early life and career 3 Ambassador to Germany 4 Ambassador to France 5 Honours 6 Family 7 Ancestry 8 In popular culture 9 References 10 Sources 11 External linksFamily[edit] Phipps was the son of Sir Constantine Phipps, later British Ambassador to Belgium, and his wife, Maria Jane (née Miller Mundy). Henry Phipps, 1st Earl of Mulgrave, was his great-grandfather, and he was also a great-grandson of Lieutenant-General Sir Colin Campbell, who was present at the Battle of Waterloo, and of Rear-Admiral Sir John Hindmarsh, who was a Lieutenant on HMS Phoebe at the Battle of Trafalgar. Early life and career[edit] As a child, he accompanied his parents around Europe to his father's various postings
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Young Plan
The Young Plan
Young Plan
was a program for settling German reparations debts after World War I
World War I
written in August 1929 and formally adopted in 1930. It was presented by the committee headed (1929–30) by American industrialist Owen D. Young, creator and ex-first chairman of the Radio Corporation of America
Radio Corporation of America
(RCA), who, at the time, concurrently served at board of trustees of the Rockefeller Foundation, and also had been one of the representatives involved in previous war reparations restructuring arrangement – the Dawes Plan
Dawes Plan
of 1924. The Inter-Allied Reparations Commission
Inter-Allied Reparations Commission
established the German reparation sum at a theoretical total of 132 billion, but a practical total of 50 billion gold marks
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Ferdinand Foch
Franco-Prussian War First World WarBattle of the Frontiers Third Battle of Artois Battle of the Somme Spring Offensive Meuse-Argonne OffensiveAwards Légion d'honneur (Grand Cross) Médaille militaire Croix de guerre Order of Leopold (Grand Cross) Order of Ouissam Alaouite
Order of Ouissam Alaouite
(Grand Cross) Order of the White Eagle Virtuti Militari
Virtuti Militari
(Grand Cross) Order of St. George
Order of St. George
(2nd Class) Order of the Bath
Order of the Bath
(Honorary Grand Cross) Order of the Redeemer Order of Merit Distinguished Service Order Distinguished Service Medal (US)Marshal Ferdinand Jean Marie Foch (French pronunciation: ​[fɔʃ]) (2 October 1851 – 20 March 1929) was a French general and military theorist who served as the Supreme Allied Commander during the First World War
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Joseph Joffre
Franco-Prussian WarSiege of ParisSino-French War World War IBattle of the Frontiers First Battle of the Marne Race to the Sea First Battle of Artois First Battle of Champagne Second Battle of Ypres Second Battle of Artois Second Battle of Champagne Battle of Verdun Battle of the SommeAwards Grand cross of the Légion d'honneur Médaille militaire Croix de guerre 1914–1918 Distinguished Service Medal (US) Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Bath (UK)[1] Order of Merit (UK)Marshal Joseph Jacques Césaire Joffre (French pronunciation: ​[ʒɔsɛf ʒɔfʁ]; 12 January 1852 – 3 January 1931), was a French general who served as Commander-in-Chief of French forces on the Western Front from the start of World War I until the end of 1916
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Lorraine (province)
The Duchy of Lorraine
Lorraine
(French: Lorraine, IPA: [lɔʁɛn]; German: Lothringen), originally Upper Lorraine, was a duchy now included in the larger present-day region of Lorraine
Lorraine
in northeastern France. Its capital was Nancy. It was founded in 959 following the division of Lotharingia
Lotharingia
into two separate duchies: Upper and Lower Lorraine, the westernmost parts of the Holy Roman Empire. The Lower duchy was quickly dismantled, while Upper Lorraine
Lorraine
came to be known as simply the Duchy of Lorraine
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Quai D'Orsay
The Quai d’Orsay (French: [kɛ dɔʁsɛ]) is a quay in the 7th arrondissement of Paris, part of the left bank of the Seine, and the name of the street along it. The Quai becomes the Quai Anatole-France (fr) east of the Palais Bourbon, and the Quai Branly west of the Pont de l'Alma. The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs is located on the Quai d'Orsay, and thus the ministry is often called the Quai d'Orsay
Quai d'Orsay
by metonymy. The Quai (rue du Bac) has historically played an important role in French art
French art
as a location to which many artists came to paint along the banks of the river Seine. The building of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs was developed between 1844 and 1855 by Jacques Lacornée
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Cordon Sanitaire
Cordon sanitaire (French pronunciation: ​[kɔʁdɔ̃ sanitɛʁ]) is a French phrase that, literally translated, means "sanitary cordon". It originally denoted a barrier implemented to stop the spread of infectious diseases. It may be used interchangeably with the term "quarantine", and although the terms are related, cordon sanitaire refers to the restriction of movement of people within a defined geographic area, such as a community.[1] The term is also often used metaphorically, in English, to refer to attempts to prevent the spread of an ideology deemed unwanted or dangerous,[2] such as the containment policy adopted by George F. Kennan
George F

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Low Countries
The Low Countries
Low Countries
or, in the geographic sense of the term, the Netherlands
Netherlands
(Dutch: de Lage Landen or de Nederlanden, French: les Pays Bas) is a coastal region in northwestern Europe, consisting especially of the Netherlands
Netherlands
and Belgium, and the low-lying delta of the Rhine, Meuse, Scheldt, and Ems rivers where much of the land is at or below sea level.[1][2] This wide area of Western Europe
Europe
roughly stretches from the French département du Nord at its southwestern point, to German East Frisia
East Frisia
at its northeastern point. The Netherlands
Netherlands
is often considered to include inland areas with strong links, such as Luxembourg
Luxembourg
today, and historically, parts of the German Rhineland
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Locarno Conference
The Locarno
Locarno
Treaties were seven agreements negotiated at Locarno, Switzerland, on 5–16 October 1925 and formally signed in London
London
on 1 December, in which the First World War Western European Allied powers and the new states of Central and Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
sought to secure the post-war territorial settlement, and return normalizing relations with defeated Germany
Germany
(the Weimar Republic). It also stated that Germany would never go to war with the other countries. Locarno
Locarno
divided borders in Europe into two categories: western, which were guaranteed by Locarno
Locarno
treaties, and eastern borders of Germany
Germany
with Poland, which were open for revision
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World War I
Allied victoryCentral Powers' victory on the Eastern Front nullified by defeat on the Western Front Fall of the German, Russian, Ottoman, and Austro-Hungarian empires Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
and foundation of the Soviet Union Formation of new countries in Europe
Europe
and the Middle East Transfer of German colonies
German colonies
and regions of the former Ottoman Empire to other powers Establishment of the League of Nations
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Belgium
Coordinates: 50°50′N 4°00′E / 50.833°N 4.000°E / 50.833; 4.000Kingdom of BelgiumKoninkrijk België  (Dutch) Royaume de Belgique  (French) Königreich Belgien  (German)FlagCoat of armsMotto: "Eendracht maakt macht" (Dutch) "L'union fait la force" (French) "Einigkeit macht stark" (German) "Unity makes Strength"Anthem: "La Brabançonne" "The Brabantian"Location of  Belgium  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)Capital and largest city Brussels 50°51′N 4°21′E / 50.850°N 4.350°E / 50.850; 4.350Official languages Dutch French GermanEthnic groups see DemographicsReligion (2015[1])60.7% Christianity 32.0% No religion 5.2% Islam 2.1% Other religionsDemonym BelgianGovernment Federal parliamentary constitu
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English Channel
The English Channel
English Channel
(French: la Manche, "The Sleeve"; German: Ärmelkanal, "Sleeve Channel"; Breton: Mor Breizh, "Sea of Brittany"; Cornish: Mor Bretannek, "British Sea"), also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England
England
from northern France, and links the southern part of the North Sea
North Sea
to the Atlantic Ocean
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