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Maghemite
Maghemite
Maghemite
(Fe2O3, γ-Fe2O3) is a member of the family of iron oxides. It has the same spinel ferrite structure as magnetite and is also ferrimagnetic. Maghemite
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Magnesite
Magnesite
Magnesite
is a mineral with the chemical formula MgCO3 (magnesium carbonate). Mixed crystals of iron(II) carbonate and magnesite (mixed crystals known as ankerite) possess a layered structure: monolayers of carbonate groups alternate with magnesium monolayers as well as iron(II) carbonate monolayers.[5] Manganese, cobalt and nickel may also occur in small amounts.Contents1 Occurrence 2 Formation 3 Uses3.1 Occupational safety and health3.1.1 USA4 Further reading 5 ReferencesOccurrence[edit] Magnesite
Magnesite
occurs as veins in and an alteration product of ultramafic rocks, serpentinite and other magnesium rich rock types in both contact and regional metamorphic terrains
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Electrostatic Energy
Electric potential energy, or electrostatic potential energy, is a potential energy (measured in joules) that results from conservative Coulomb forces and is associated with the configuration of a particular set of point charges within a defined system
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Sediment
Sediment
Sediment
is a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering and erosion, and is subsequently transported by the action of wind, water, or ice, and/or by the force of gravity acting on the particles. For example, sand and silt can be carried in suspension in river water and on reaching the sea be deposited by sedimentation and if buried, may eventually become sandstone and siltstone (sedimentary rocks). Sediments are most often transported by water (fluvial processes), but also wind (aeolian processes) and glaciers. Beach sands and river channel deposits are examples of fluvial transport and deposition, though sediment also often settles out of slow-moving or standing water in lakes and oceans. Desert sand dunes and loess are examples of aeolian transport and deposition
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Ilmenite
Ilmenite, also known as Manaccanite, is the titanium-iron oxide mineral with the idealized formula FeTiO 3. It is a weakly magnetic black or steel-gray solid. From the commercial perspective, ilmenite is the most important ore of titanium.[4] Ilmenite
Ilmenite
is the main source of titanium dioxide, which is used in paints, fabrics, plastics, paper, sunscreen, food and cosmetics.[5]Contents1 Structure and properties 2 Discovery 3 Mineral
Mineral
chemistry 4 Paragenesis 5 Processing and consumption5.1 Alloys6 Feedstock production 7 Lunar ilmenite 8 ReferencesStructure and properties[edit] Ilmenite
Ilmenite
crystallizes in the trigonal system
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Anatase
Anatase
Anatase
is one of the three mineral forms of titanium dioxide, the other two being brookite and rutile. It is always found as small, isolated and sharply developed crystals, and like rutile, a more commonly occurring modification of titanium dioxide, it crystallizes in the tetragonal system; but, although the degree of symmetry is the same for both, there is no relation between the interfacial angles of the two minerals, except in the prism-zone of 45° and 90°. The common pyramid of anatase, parallel to the faces of which there are perfect cleavages, has an angle over the polar edge of 82°9', the corresponding angle of rutile being 56°52½'. It was on account of this steeper pyramid of anatase that the mineral was named, by René Just Haüy in 1801, from the Greek anatasis, "extension", the vertical axis of the crystals being longer than in rutile
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Pyrite
The mineral pyrite, or iron pyrite, also known as fool's gold, is an iron sulfide with the chemical formula FeS2 (iron(II) disulfide). Pyrite
Pyrite
is considered the most common of the sulfide minerals. Pyrite's metallic luster and pale brass-yellow hue give it a superficial resemblance to gold, hence the well-known nickname of fool's gold. The color has also led to the nicknames brass, brazzle, and Brazil, primarily used to refer to pyrite found in coal.[5][6] The name pyrite is derived from the Greek πυρίτης (pyritēs), "of fire" or "in fire",[7] in turn from πύρ (pyr), "fire".[8] In ancient Roman times, this name was applied to several types of stone that would create sparks when struck against steel; Pliny the Elder described one of them as being brassy, almost certainly a reference to what we now call pyrite.[9] By Georgius Agricola's time, c
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Marcasite
Crystals typically tabular on 010 , curved faces common; stalactitic, reniform, massive; cockscomb and spearhead shapes due to twinning on 101 .Twinning Common and repeated on 101 ; less common on 011 .Cleavage Cleavage: 101 , rather distinct; 110 in tracesFracture Irregular/UnevenTenacity BrittleMohs scale hardness 6-6.5Luster MetallicStreak Dark-grey to black.Diaphaneity OpaqueSpecific gravity 4.875 calculated, 4.887 measuredPleochroism [100] creamy white; [010] light yellowish white; [001] white with rose-brown tint. Anisotropism: Very strong, yellow through pale green to dark greenReferences [1][2][3][4]The mineral marcasite, sometimes called white iron pyrite, is iron sulfide (FeS2) with orthorhombic crystal structure. It is physically and crystallographically distinct from pyrite, which is iron sulfide with cubic crystal structure
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Goethite
Goethite
Goethite
(FeO(OH); /ˈɡɜːrtaɪt/ GUR-tyte) is an iron bearing hydroxide mineral of the diaspore group. It is found in soil and other low-temperature environments. Goethite
Goethite
has been well known since ancient times for its use as a pigment (brown ochre). Evidence has been found of its use in paint pigment samples taken from the caves of Lascaux
Lascaux
in France
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Redding, California
Redding, officially the City of Redding, is the county seat of Shasta County, California, in the northern part of the state. It lies along the Sacramento
Sacramento
River, is 162 miles (261 kilometers) north of Sacramento, and 120 miles (190 km) south of the Oregon
Oregon
border. Interstate 5
Interstate 5
bisects the entire city, from the south to north before it approaches Shasta Lake, which is located 15 miles (24 km) to the north
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Shasta County, California
Shasta County, officially the County of Shasta, is a county in the northern portion of the U.S. state
U.S. state
of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 177,223.[2] The county seat is Redding.[4] Shasta County comprises the Redding, California
California
Metropolitan Statistical Area
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Crystal
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.[1][2] In addition, macroscopic single crystals are usually identifiable by their geometrical shape, consisting of flat faces with specific, characteristic orientations. The scientific study of crystals and crystal formation is known as crystallography. The process of crystal formation via mechanisms of crystal growth is called crystallization or solidification. The word crystal derives from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
word κρύσταλλος (krustallos), meaning both "ice" and "rock crystal",[3] from κρύος (kruos), "icy cold, frost".[4][5] Examples of large crystals include snowflakes, diamonds, and table salt. Most inorganic solids are not crystals but polycrystals, i.e. many microscopic crystals fused together into a single solid
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Lepidocrocite
Lepidocrocite
Lepidocrocite
(γ-FeO(OH)), also called esmeraldite or hydrohematite, is an iron oxide-hydroxide mineral. Lepidocrocite
Lepidocrocite
has an orthorhombic crystal structure, a hardness of 5, specific gravity of 4, a submetallic luster and a yellow-brown streak. It is red to reddish brown and forms when iron-containing substances rust underwater. Lepidocrocite
Lepidocrocite
is commonly found in the weathering of primary iron minerals and in iron ore deposits. It can be seen as rust scale inside old steel water pipes and water tanks. The structure of lepidocrocite is similar to the boehmite structure found in bauxite and consists of layered iron(III) oxide octahedra bonded by hydrogen bonding via hydroxide layers. This relatively weakly bonded layering accounts for the scaley habit of the mineral. It was first described in 1813 from the Zlaté Hory polymetallic ore deposit in Moravia, Czech Republic
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Semiconductor
A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc. – and an insulator, such as glass. Their resistance decreases as their temperature increases, which is behavior opposite to that of a metal. Their conducting properties may be altered in useful ways by the deliberate, controlled introduction of impurities ("doping") into the crystal structure. Where two differently-doped regions exist in the same crystal, a semiconductor junction is created. The behavior of charge carriers which include electrons, ions and electron holes at these junctions is the basis of diodes, transistors and all modern electronics. Semiconductor
Semiconductor
devices can display a range of useful properties such as passing current more easily in one direction than the other, showing variable resistance, and sensitivity to light or heat
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Bandgap
In solid-state physics, a band gap, also called an energy gap or bandgap, is an energy range in a solid where no electron states can exist. In graphs of the electronic band structure of solids, the band gap generally refers to the energy difference (in electron volts) between the top of the valence band and the bottom of the conduction band in insulators and semiconductors. It is the energy required to promote a valence electron bound to an atom to become a conduction electron, which is free to move within the crystal lattice and serve as a charge carrier to conduct electric current. It is closely related to the HOMO/LUMO
HOMO/LUMO
gap in chemistry. If the valence band is completely full and the conduction band is completely empty, then electrons cannot move in the solid; however, if some electrons transfer from the valence to the conduction band, then current can flow (see carrier generation and recombination)
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Spin (physics)
In quantum mechanics and particle physics, spin is an intrinsic form of angular momentum carried by elementary particles, composite particles (hadrons), and atomic nuclei.[1][2] Spin is one of two types of angular momentum in quantum mechanics, the other being orbital angular momentum. The orbital angular momentum operator is the quantum-mechanical counterpart to the classical angular momentum of orbital revolution: it arises when a particle executes a rotating or twisting trajectory (such as when an electron orbits a nucleus).[3][4] The existence of spin angular momentum is inferred from experiments, such as the Stern–Gerlach experiment, in which particles are observed to possess angular momentum that cannot be accounted for by orbital angular momentum alone.[5] In some ways, spin is like a vector quantity; it has a definite magnitude, and it has a "direction" (but quantization makes this "direction" different from the direction of an ordinary vector)
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