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Mafic Rock
Mafic is an adjective describing a silicate mineral or igneous rock that is rich in magnesium and iron.[1] Most mafic minerals are dark in color, and common rock-forming mafic minerals include olivine, pyroxene, amphibole, and biotite. Common mafic rocks include basalt, diabase and gabbro. Mafic rocks often also contain calcium-rich varieties of plagioclase feldspar. Mafic materials can also be described as ferromagnesian. Chemically, mafic rocks are enriched in iron, magnesium and calcium and typically dark in color. In contrast the felsic rocks are typically light in color and enriched in aluminium and silicon along with potassium and sodium. The mafic rocks also typically have a higher density than felsic rocks
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Palagonite
Palagonite is an alteration product from the interaction of water with volcanic glass of chemical composition similar to basalt. Palagonite can also result from the interaction between water and basalt melt. The water flashes to steam on contact with the hot lava and the small fragments of lava react with the steam to form the light-colored palagonite tuff cones common in areas of basaltic eruptions in contact with water. An example is found in the pyroclastic cones of the Galapagos Islands. Charles Darwin recognized the origin of these cones during his visit to the islands. Palagonite can also be formed by a slower weathering of lava into palagonite, resulting in a thin, yellow-orange rind on the surface of the rock
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Porphyritic
Porphyritic is an adjective used in geology, specifically for igneous rocks, for a rock that has a distinct difference in the size of the crystals, with at least one group of crystals obviously larger than another group.[1] Porphyritic rocks may be aphanites or extrusive rock, with large crystals or phenocrysts floating in a fine-grained groundmass of non-visible crystals, as in a porphyritic basalt, or phanerites or intrusive rock, with individual crystals of the groundmass easily distinguished with the eye, but one group of crystals clearly much bigger than the rest, as in a porphyritic granite. Most types of igneous rocks may display some degree of porphyritic texture
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Aphanitic
Aphanite, or aphanitic as an adjective (from the Greek αφανης, "invisible"), is a name given to certain igneous rocks that are so fine-grained that their component mineral crystals are not detectable by the unaided eye[1] (as opposed to phaneritic igneous rocks, where the minerals are visible to the unaided eye). This geological texture results from rapid cooling in volcanic or hypabyssal (shallow subsurface) environments. As a rule, the texture of these rocks is not the same as that of volcanic glass (e.g., obsidian), with volcanic glass being non-crystalline (amorphous), and having a glass-like appearance.[2] Aphanites are commonly porphyritic, having large crystals embedded in the fine groundmass or matrix
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Pyroclastic
Pyroclastic rocks or pyroclastics (derived from the Greek: πῦρ, meaning fire; and κλαστός, meaning broken) are clastic rocks composed of clasts formed (fragmented) by volcanic explosions. Most contain volcanic particles and so are a type of volcaniclastic deposit. 'Phreatic' pyroclastic deposits form from steam explosions, and so the lithology of the pyroclasts in them reflect the nature of the aquifer in which the explosions occurred (e.g. may be sedimentary, metamorphic or volcanic). Pyroclasts are formed during Plinian, Vulcanian, Strombolian, Hawaiian, lava dome-forming, phreatoplinian, Surtseyan, Taalian [phreatomagmatic eruption] and phreatic eruption styles. Pyroclastic deposits are commonly formed from airborne ash, lapilli and bombs or blocks ejected from the volcano. They include juvenile pyroclasts derived from chilled magma, mixed with accidental pyroclasts, which are fragments of country rock
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Breccia
Breccia ( /ˈbrɛiə/ or /ˈbrɛʃiə/) is a rock composed of broken fragments of minerals or rock cemented together by a fine-grained matrix[1] that can be similar to or different from the composition of the fragments. The word has its origins in the Italian language, in which it means either "loose gravel" or "stone made by cemented gravel"
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Vesicular Texture
Vesicular texture is a volcanic rock texture characterized by a rock being pitted with many cavities (known as vesicles) at its surface and inside. [1] This texture is common in aphanitic, or glassy, igneous rocks that have come to the surface of the earth, a process known as extrusion. As magma rises to the surface the pressure on it decreases. When this happens gasses dissolved in the magma are able to come out of solution, forming gas bubbles (the cavities) inside it. When the magma finally reaches the surface as lava and cools, the rock solidifies around the gas bubbles and traps them inside, preserving them as holes filled with gas called vesicles. [2] A related texture is amygdaloidal in which the volcanic rock, usually basalt or andesite, has cavities, or vesicles, that are filled with secondary minerals, such as zeolites, calcite, quartz, or chalcedony
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Amygdule
Amygdules or amygdales form when the gas bubbles or vesicles in volcanic lava (or other extrusive igneous rocks) are infilled with a secondary mineral such as calcite, quartz, chlorite or one of the zeolites.[1] Amygdules usually form after the rock has been emplaced, and are often associated with low-temperature alteration. Amygdules may often be concentrically zoned
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Scoria
Scoria is a highly vesicular, dark-colored volcanic rock that may or may not contain crystals (phenocrysts). It is typically dark in color (generally dark brown, black or purplish red), and basaltic or andesitic in composition. Scoria is relatively low in density as a result of its numerous macroscopic ellipsoidal vesicles, but in contrast to pumice, all scoria has a specific gravity greater than 1, and sinks in water. The holes or vesicles form when gases that were dissolved in the magma come out of solution as it erupts, creating bubbles in the molten rock, some of which are frozen in place as the rock cools and solidifies. Scoria may form as part of a lava flow, typically near its surface, or as fragmental ejecta (lapilli, blocks and bombs), for instance in Strombolian eruptions that form steep-sided scoria cones. Chemical analysis of scoria found in Yemen showed that it was mainly composed of volcanic glass with a few zeolites (e.g
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Sideromelane
Sideromelane is a vitreous basaltic volcanic glass, usually occurring in palagonite tuff, for which it is characteristic. It is a less common form of tachylite, with which it usually occurs together; however it lacks the iron oxide crystals dispersed in the glass, and therefore appearing transparent and pure, with yellow-brown color, instead of tachylite opaque black. It forms at higher temperatures and with more rapid chilling. Presence of sideromelane indicates higher temperature of the lava, and solidifying of the flow closer to the vent, probably by rapid quenching in a wet environment. Sideromelane often forms during explosions of submarine volcanoes and subglacial volcanoes, and often occurs as fragments embedded in a palagonite matrix, forming hyaloclastite deposits
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QAPF Diagram
A QAPF diagram is a double ternary diagram which is used to classify igneous rocks based on mineralogic composition. The acronym QAPF stands for "Quartz, Alkali feldspar, Plagioclase, Feldspathoid (Foid)". These are the mineral groups used for classification in QAPF diagram. Q, A, P and F percentages are normalized (recalculated so that their sum is 100%). QAPF diagrams were created by the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS): Subcommission on the Systematics of Igneous Rocks[1] fostered by Albert Streckeisen (whence their alternative name: Streckeisen diagrams). Geologists worldwide accept the diagrams as a classification of igneous, especially plutonic rocks.[citation needed] QAPF diagrams are mostly used to classify plutonic rocks (phaneritic rocks), but are also used to classify volcanic rocks if modal mineralogical compositions have been determined
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