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Madrassa
Madrasa
Madrasa
(Arabic: مدرسة‎, madrasah, pl. مدارس, madāris) is the Arabic
Arabic
word for any type of educational institution, whether secular or religious (of any religion), and whether a school, college, or university. The word is variously transliterated madrasah, medresa, madrassa, madraza, medrese, etc. In the West, the word usually refers to a specific type of religious school or college for the study of the Islamic religion, though this may not be the only subject studied
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Madras
Chennai
Chennai
(/ˈtʃɛnaɪ/ ( listen); formerly known as Madras /məˈdrɑːs/ ( listen) or /-ˈdræs/[12]) is the capital of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Located on the Coromandel Coast
Coromandel Coast
off the Bay of Bengal, it is one of the biggest cultural, economic and educational centres in South India. According to the 2011 Indian census, it is the sixth-largest city and fourth-most populous urban agglomeration in India. The city together with the adjoining regions constitute the Chennai
Chennai
Metropolitan Area, which is the 36th-largest urban area by population in the world.[13] Chennai
Chennai
is among the most visited Indian cities by foreign tourists
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Taghut
Taghut (ar. طاغوت, ṭāġūt, pl. ṭawāġīt) is an Islamic terminology denoting a focus of worship other than Allah. In traditional theology, the term often connotes idols, Satan
Satan
and jinn. The term is also applied to earthly tyrannical power, as implied in surah An-Nisa
An-Nisa
verse 60.[1] The modern Islamic philosopher
Islamic philosopher
Abul A'la Maududi defines taghut in his Qur'anic commentary as a creature who not only rebels against God
God
but transgresses his will.[2] Due to these associations, the term may refer to any person or group accused of being anti-Islamic and an agent of Western cultural imperialism
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Islamic Views On Sin
Sin
Sin
is an important concept in Islamic ethics. Muslims see sin as anything that goes against the commands of Allah
Allah
(God), a breach of the laws and norms laid down by religion.[1] Islam
Islam
teaches that sin is an act and not a state of being. It is believed that Allah
Allah
weighs an individual’s good deeds and against his or her sins on the Day of Judgement and punishes those individuals whose evil deeds outweigh their good deeds. These individuals are thought to be sentenced to afterlife in the fires of جهنم jahannam (Hell). The Quran
Quran
describes these sins throughout the text and demonstrates that some sins are more punishable than others
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Halal
Halal
Halal
(Arabic: حلال‎ ḥalāl, "permissible"), also spelled hallal or halaal, refers to what is permissible or lawful in traditional Islamic law
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Haram
Haram (/ˈhɛərəm, ˈhær-/; Arabic: حَرَام‎ ḥarām [ħaˈraːm]) is an Arabic term meaning "forbidden".[1]:471 Thus it may refer to: either something sacred to which access is forbidden to the people who are not in a state of purity or who are not initiated into the sacred knowledge; or to an evil thus "sinful action that is forbidden to be done". The term also denotes something "set aside", thus being the Arabic equivalent of the Hebrew concept קָדוֹש‬ qadoš, and the concept of sacer (cf. sacred) in Roman law
Roman law
and religion
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Istishhad
Istishhad
Istishhad
(Arabic: استشهاد‎) is the Arabic
Arabic
word for "martyrdom", "death of a martyr", or "heroic death".[1] In recent years the term has been said to "emphasize... heroism in the act of sacrifice" rather than "victimization", and has "developed...into a military and political strategy", often called "martyrdom operations".[2] One who martyrs themselves is given the honorific shahid.Contents1 History 2 Martyrdom
Martyrdom
operation 3 Scholarship3.1 Against suicide attacks 3.2 Proponents of suicide operations4 Public opinion 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External linksHistory[edit] Muslim Acehnese from the Aceh Sultanate
Aceh Sultanate
performed suicide attacks known as Parang-sabil against Dutch invaders during the Aceh War. It was considered as part of personal jihad in the Islamic religion of the Acehnese
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Jihad
Jihad
Jihad
(English: /dʒɪˈhɑːd/; Arabic: جهاد‎ jihād [dʒɪˈhaːd]) is an Arabic
Arabic
word which literally means striving or struggling, especially with a praiseworthy aim.[1][2][3][4] It can have many shades of meaning in an Islamic context, such as s
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Makruh
In Islamic
Islamic
terminology, something which is makruh (Arabic: مكروه, transliterated: makrooh or makrūh) is a disliked or offensive act (literally "detestable" or "abominable"[1]). It is one of the five categories (al-ahkam al-khamsa) in Islamic
Islamic
law -- wajib/fard (obligatory), Mustahabb/mandub (recommended), mubah (neutral), makruh (disapproved), haram (forbidden).[2] Though it is not haram (forbidden) or subject to punishment, a person who abstains from this act will be rewarded.[1] Muslims are encouraged to avoid such actions when or as possible
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Moharebeh
Ḥirābah (Arabic: حرابة‎) is an Arabic
Arabic
word for “piracy”, or “unlawful warfare”. Hirabah comes from the root ḥrb, which means “to become angry and enraged”. The noun ḥarb (حَرْب, pl
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Mubah
Mubah (Arabic: مباح) is an Arabic word meaning "permitted",[1] which has technical uses in Islamic law. In uṣūl al-fiqh (principles of Islamic jurisprudence), mubah is one of the five degrees of approval (ahkam), and is commonly translated as "neutral",[2][3] "indifferent"[4] or "(merely) permitted".[4][5] It refers to an action that is not mandatory, recommended, reprehensible or forbidden, and thus involves no judgement from God.[2] Assigning acts to this legal category reflects a deliberate choice rather than an oversight on the part of jurists.[3] In Islamic property law, the term mubah refers to things which have no owner. It is similar to the concept res nullius used in Roman law and common law.[6] See also[edit]HalalReferences[edit]^ Hans Wehr, J. Milton Cowan (1976). A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic (3rd ed.). Spoken Language Services. p. 81.  ^ a b Vikør, Knut S. (2014). "Sharīʿah". In Emad El-Din Shahin
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Mustahabb
Mustahabb (Arabic: مستحبّ‎, lit. 'recommended') is an Islamic term
Islamic term
referring to recommended, favoured or virtuous actions. Mustahabb actions are those whose status of approval in Islamic law (ahkam) falls between mubah (neither encouraged nor discouraged) and wajib (compulsory). One definition is "duties recommended, but not essential; fulfilment of which is rewarded, though they may be neglected without punishment".[1] Synonyms of mustahabb include masnun and mandub. The opposite of mustahabb is makruh (discouraged).Contents1 Examples 2 References 3 See also 4 External linksExamples[edit] There are thousands of mustahabb acts,[2] including: As-Salamu Alaykum (a traditional Islamic greeting, Arabic for "peace be upon you") Sadaqah (charity outside of zakat) UmrahReferences[edit]^ Reuben Levy, The Social Structure of Islam, p. 202 ^ Turner, Colin (2013-12-19)
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Taqiya
In Islam, Taqiya
Taqiya
or taqiyya (Arabic: تقیة‎ taqiyyah, literally "prudence, fear")[1][2] is a precautionary dissimulation or denial of religious belief and practice in the face of persecution.[3][4][1][5] Another term for this concept, kitmān (lit
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Fasiq
Fasiq (Arabic: فاسق‎ fāsiq) is an Arabic term referring to someone who violates Islamic law. As a fasiq is considered unreliable, his testimony is not accepted in Islamic courts.[1] The terms fasiq and fisq are sometime rendered as "impious",[1] "venial sinner",[1] or "depraved".[2]Contents1 Origin 2 Theological debate 3 Applications 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksOrigin[edit] Fasiq is derived from the term fisq (Arabic: فسق‎), "breaking the agreement"[3] or "to leave or go out of."[2] In its original Quranic usage, the term did not have the specific meaning of a violator of laws, and was more broadly associated with kufr (disbelief).[4] Theological debate[edit]The jurist Wasil ibn Ata (700-748 CE) submitted that a fasiq remained a member of Muslim
Muslim
society, so retained rights to life and property though he could not hold a religious position
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Thawab
Sawāb or Thawāb (Arabic: ثواب‎) is an Arabic term meaning "reward". Specifically, in the context of an Islamic worldview, thawab refers to spiritual merit or reward that accrues from the performance of good deeds and piety.[1]Contents1 Pronunciation 2 Activities for earning thawab 3 See also 4 ReferencesPronunciation[edit] The word thawab is used throughout the Islamic world, so the spelling and pronunciation is slightly different from one region to another. In Kazakh society, for instance, it may be pronounced as "sauap", in Iran as "savab", in Arab areas as "thawab" and in India
India
and Pakistan
Pakistan
as "savab" or "sawab".[2][3] In Bosnian and Turkish the word becomes sevap. Activities for earning thawab[edit] Usually any and all good acts are considered to contribute towards earning sawab, but for a Muslim there are certain acts that are more rewarding than others
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Caliphate
A caliphate (Arabic: خِلافة‎ khilāfah) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (/ˈkælɪf, ˈkeɪ-/, Arabic: خَليفة‎ khalīfah,  pronunciation (help·info)), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
and a leader of the entire Muslim
Muslim
community.[1] Historically, the caliphates were polities based in Islam
Islam
which developed into multi-ethnic trans-national empires.[2] During the medieval period, three major caliphates succeeded each other: the Rashidun Caliphate
Rashidun Caliphate
(632–661), the Umayyad Caliphate
Umayyad Caliphate
(661–750) and the Abbasid Caliphate (750–1258)
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