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Madeleine Albright
Madeleine Jana Korbel Albright[1] (born May 15, 1937)[2][3] is an American politician and diplomat. She is the first woman to have become the United States Secretary of State. She served from 1997 to 2001 under President Bill Clinton. Born Marie Jana Korbelová, her family emigrated to the United States in 1948 from Czechoslovakia. Her diplomat father, Josef Korbel, settled their family in Denver, and she became a U.S
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The Holocaust
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah,[b] was a genocide during World War II
World War II
in which Adolf Hitler's Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered some six million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.[c] Jews
Jews
were targeted for extermination as part of a larger event involving the persecution and murder of other groups, including in particular the Roma, ethnic Poles, and "incurably sick",[6] as well as political opponents, homosexuals, Jehovah's Witnesses, and Soviet prisoners of war.[7] Germany implemented the persecution in stages. Following Hitler's rise to power in 1933, the government passed laws to exclude Jews
Jews
from civil society, most prominently the Nuremberg Laws
Nuremberg Laws
in 1935
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Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
Hitler
(German: [ˈadɔlf ˈhɪtlɐ] ( listen); 20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician who was the leader of the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
(Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany
Chancellor of Germany
from 1933 to 1945 and Führer
Führer
("Leader") of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
from 1934 to 1945.[a] As dictator, Hitler
Hitler
initiated World War II
World War II
in Europe with the invasion of Poland in September 1939, and was central to the Holocaust. Hitler
Hitler
was born in Austria—then part of Austria-Hungary—and was raised near Linz. He moved to Germany
Germany
in 1913 and was decorated during his service in the German Army in World War I
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Presidential Medal Of Freedom
The Presidential Medal of Freedom
Medal of Freedom
is an award bestowed by the President of the United States
President of the United States
and is—along with the comparable Congressional Gold Medal—the highest civilian award of the United States. It recognizes those people who have made "an especially meritorious contribution to the security or national interests of the United States, world peace, cultural or other significant public or private endeavors".[2] The award is not limited to U.S. citizens and, while it is a civilian award, it can also be awarded to military personnel and worn on the uniform. It was established in 1963 by President John F. Kennedy,[3] superseding the Medal of Freedom
Medal of Freedom
that was established by President Harry S. Truman
Harry S

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Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire
Empire
or the Dual Monarchy
Dual Monarchy
in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
(the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary ( Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen
Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen
or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867
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World War I
Allied victoryCentral Powers' victory on the Eastern Front nullified by defeat on the Western Front Fall of the German, Russian, Ottoman, and Austro-Hungarian empires Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
and foundation of the Soviet Union Formation of new countries in Europe
Europe
and the Middle East Transfer of German colonies
German colonies
and regions of the former Ottoman Empire to other powers Establishment of the League of Nations
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Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk
Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk
Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk
(Czech: [ˈtomaːʃ ˈɡarɪk ˈmasarɪk]), sometimes anglicised to Thomas Masaryk (7 March 1850 – 14 September 1937), was a Czech politician, statesman, sociologist and philosopher. After trying to reform the Austro-Hungarian monarchy into a federal state, with the help of the Allied Powers, he eventually succeeded in gaining Czechoslovak independence as a republic after World War I
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Edvard Beneš
Edvard Beneš, sometimes anglicised to Edward Benesh (Czech pronunciation: [ˈɛdvard ˈbɛnɛʃ] ( listen); 28 May 1884 – 3 September 1948), was a Czech politician who was twice President of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
(1935–1938 and 1945–1948). He was also Minister of Foreign Affairs (1918–1935), 4th Prime Minister of Czechoslovakia (1921–1922) and the President of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
in exile (1939–1945). A member of the Czechoslovak National Social Party, he was known as a skilled diplomat.[1]Contents1 Early life 2 Education 3 Independence activities 4 Independent country 5 First presidency 6 Renewed exile 7 Second presidency 8 Death 9 In fiction 10 See also 11 References 12 Sources12.1 Primary sources13 External linksEarly life[edit] He was born into a peasant family in 1884 in the small town of Kožlany, Bohemia, in the Austro-Hungarian Empire
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United States National Security Council
The White House
White House
National Security Council (NSC) is the principal forum used by the President of the United States
President of the United States
for consideration of national security, military matters, and foreign policy matters with senior national security advisors and Cabinet officials and is part of the executive office of the president of the United States. Since its inception under Harry S. Truman, the function of the Council has been to advise and assist the president on national security and foreign policies. The Council also serves as the president's principal arm for coordinating these policies among various government agencies
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Belgrade
Belgrader (en) Beograđanin (sr)Time zone CET (UTC+1) • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)Postal code 11000Area code(s) +381(0)11 ISO 3166 code RS-00Car plates BGWebsite www.beograd.rs Belgrade
Belgrade
(/ˈbɛlɡreɪd/ BEL-grayd; Serbian: Beograd / Београд, meaning "White city", Serbian pronunciation: [beǒɡrad] ( listen); names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Serbia. It is located at the confluence of the Sava
Sava
and Danube
Danube
rivers, where the Pannonian Plain meets the Balkans.[6] The urban area of the City of Belgrade
Belgrade
has a population of 1.23 million, while nearly 1.7 million people live within its administrative limits.[5] One of the most important prehistoric cultures of Europe, the Vinča culture, evolved within the Belgrade
Belgrade
area in the 6th millennium BC
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Prague Spring
The Prague
Prague
Spring (Czech: Pražské jaro, Slovak: Pražská jar) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
during the era of its domination by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
after World War II. It began on 5 January 1968, when reformist Alexander Dubček
Alexander Dubček
was elected First Secretary of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia
Communist Party of Czechoslovakia
(KSČ), and continued until 21 August 1968 when the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and other members of the Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
invaded the country to halt the reforms. The Prague
Prague
Spring reforms were a strong attempt by Dubček to grant additional rights to the citizens of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
in an act of partial decentralization of the economy and democratization
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Denver
Denver
Denver
(/ˈdɛnvər/), officially the City and County of Denver, is the capital and most populous municipality of the U.S. state
U.S. state
of Colorado. Denver
Denver
is in the South Platte River
South Platte River
Valley on the western edge of the High Plains just east of the Front Range
Front Range
of the Rocky Mountains
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German Occupation Of Czechoslovakia
The German occupation of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
(1938–1945) began with the German annexation of Czechoslovakia's northern and western border regions, formerly being part of German-Austria
German-Austria
known collectively as the Sudetenland, under terms outlined by the Munich
Munich
Agreement. German leader Adolf Hitler's pretext for this action was the alleged privations suffered by the ethnic German population living in those regions. New and extensive Czechoslovak border fortifications
Czechoslovak border fortifications
were also located in the same area. Following the Anschluss
Anschluss
of Austria
Austria
to Nazi Germany, in March 1938, the conquest of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
became Hitler's next ambition
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Doctor Of Philosophy
A Doctor of Philosophy
Philosophy
(PhD, Ph.D., DPhil, or Dr. phil.; Latin Philosophiae doctor) is the highest academic degree awarded by universities in most countries. PhDs are awarded for programs across the whole breadth of academic fields. The completion of a PhD is often a requirement for employment as a university professor, researcher, or scientist in many fields. Individuals who have earned a Doctor of Philosophy
Philosophy
degree may, in most jurisdictions, use the title Doctor (often abbreviated "Dr") or, in non-English speaking countries, variants such as "Dr. phil." with their name, and may use post-nominal letters such as "Ph.D.", "PhD" (depending on the awarding institute). The requirements to earn a PhD degree vary considerably according to the country, institution, and time period, from entry-level research degrees to higher doctorates
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Master Of Arts
A Master of Arts
Arts
(Latin: Magister Artium; abbreviated MA; also Latin: Artium Magister, abbreviated AM) is a person who was admitted to a type of master's degree awarded by universities in many countries, and the degree is also named Master of Arts
Arts
in colloquial speech. The degree is usually contrasted with the Master of Science. Those admitted to the degree typically study linguistics, history, communication studies, diplomacy, public administration, political science, or other subjects within the scope of the humanities and social sciences; however, different universities have different conventions and may also offer the degree for fields typically considered within the natural sciences and mathematics
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Johns Hopkins University
Johns Hopkins
Johns Hopkins
University
University
is an American private research university in Baltimore, Maryland. Founded in 1876, the university was named for its first benefactor, the American entrepreneur, abolitionist, and philanthropist Johns Hopkins.[5] His $7 million bequest (~$150 million in 2017 dollars)—of which half financed the establishment of Johns Hopkins Hospital—was the largest philanthropic gift in the history of the United States
United States
at that time.[6] Daniel Coit Gilman, who was inaugurated as the institution's first president on February 22, 1876,[7] led the university to revolutionize higher education in the U.S
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