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Madame De La Fayette
Marie-Madeleine Pioche de La Vergne, comtesse de La Fayette (baptized 18 March 1634 – 25 May 1693), better known as Madame de La Fayette, was a French writer, the author of La Princesse de Clèves, France's first historical novel and one of the earliest novels in literature.Contents1 Life 2 Family 3 Works 4 See also 5 External linksLife[edit] Christened Marie-Madeleine Pioche de La Vergne, she was born in Paris to a family of minor but wealthy nobility. At 16, de la Vergne became the maid of honour to Queen Anne of Austria
Anne of Austria
and began also to acquire a literary education from Gilles Ménage, who gave her lessons in Italian and Latin. Ménage would lead her to join the fashionable salons of Madame de Rambouillet
Madame de Rambouillet
and Madeleine de Scudéry
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Adrienne De La Fayette
Marie Adrienne Françoise de Noailles, Marquise de La Fayette (2 November 1759 – 24 December 1807), was a French marchioness
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Cardinal De Retz
Jean François Paul de Gondi, cardinal de Retz (29 September 1613 – 24 August 1679) was a French churchman, writer of memoirs, and agitator in the Fronde. The Florentine banking family of the Gondi had been introduced into France
France
by Catherine de' Medici; Catherine offered Jérome (Girolamo) de Gondi in 1573 the château that he made the nucleus of the Château de Saint-Cloud; his hôtel in the Faubourg Saint-Germain
Faubourg Saint-Germain
of Paris became the Hôtel de Condé
Hôtel de Condé
in the following generation
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Bourbonnais
Bourbonnais
Bourbonnais
was a historic province in the centre of France
France
that corresponded to the modern département of Allier, along with part of the département of Cher. Its capital was Moulins. History[edit] The title of the ruler of Bourbonnais
Bourbonnais
between 913 and 1327, was Sire de Bourbon (or Seigneur de Bourbon). The first lord of Bourbonnais
Bourbonnais
known by name was Adhémar (or Aymon I of Bourbon). Aymon's father was Aymar (894-953), sire of Souvigny, his only son with Ermengarde[clarification needed]. Aymar lived during the reign of Charles the Simple
Charles the Simple
who, in 913, gave him fiefs on the Allier River in which would become Bourbonnais. He acquired the castle of Bourbon (today Bourbon-l'Archambault)
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Favourite
A favourite or favorite (American English) was the intimate companion of a ruler or other important person. In medieval and Early Modern Europe, among other times and places, the term is used of individuals delegated significant political power by a ruler. It was especially a phenomenon of the 16th and 17th centuries, when government had become too complex for many hereditary rulers with no great interest in or talent for it, and political institutions were still evolving. From 1600 to 1660 there were particular successions of all-powerful minister-favourites in much of Europe, especially in Spain, England, France and Sweden.[1] The term is also sometimes employed by writers who want to avoid terms such as "royal mistress", or "friend", "companion" or "lover" of either sex
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Louis XIII Of France
Louis XIII (French pronunciation: ​[lwi tʁɛz]; 27 September 1601 – 14 May 1643) was a monarch of the House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
who ruled as King of France
King of France
from 1610 to 1643 and King of Navarre
King of Navarre
(as Louis II) from 1610 to 1620, when the crown of Navarre was merged with the French crown. Shortly before his ninth birthday, Louis became king of France
France
and Navarre after his father Henry IV was assassinated. His mother, Marie de' Medici, acted as regent during his minority
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Henrietta Anne Stuart
Henrietta of England
England
(16 June 1644 O.S. (26 June 1644 N.S.) – 30 June 1670) was the youngest daughter of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland and his wife, Henrietta Maria of France. Fleeing England
England
with her governess at the age of three, she moved to the court of her first cousin Louis XIV of France, where she was known as Minette.[1] After she married Philippe of France, brother of King Louis XIV, known as Monsieur at court, she became known as Madame.[2] Her marriage was marked by frequent tensions.[3] Henrietta was instrumental in negotiating the Secret Treaty of Dover, in June 1670 – early in the same month as her unexpected death
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Antoine Arnauld
Antoine Arnauld
Antoine Arnauld
(February 6, 1612 – August 8, 1694)[1] — le Grand, as contemporaries called him, to distinguish him from his father — was a French Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
theologian, philosopher, and mathematician. He was one of the leading intellectuals of the Jansenist
Jansenist
group of Port-Royal and had a very thorough knowledge of patristics.Contents1 Biography 2 Principal works 3 See also 4 Notes 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksBiography[edit] Antoine Arnauld
Antoine Arnauld
was born in Paris
Paris
to the Arnauld family. The twentieth and youngest child of the original Antoine Arnauld, he was originally intended for the bar, but decided instead to study theology at the Sorbonne
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Jean Renaud De Segrais
Jean Renaud de Segrais (22 August 1624, Caen
Caen
– 25 March 1701) was a French poet and novelist born in Caen
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Pierre Daniel Huet
Pierre Daniel Huet
Pierre Daniel Huet
(French: [y.ɛ]; Latin: Huetius; 8 February 1630 – 26 January 1721) was a French churchman and scholar, editor of the Delphin Classics, founder of the Academie du Physique in Caen (1662-1672) and Bishop of Soissons
Bishop of Soissons
from 1685 to 1689 and afterwards of Avranches.Contents1 Life 2 Works 3 Legacy 4 References 5 Sources 6 External linksLife[edit] He was born in Caen
Caen
in 1630, and educated at the Jesuit school there. He also received lessons from a Protestant
Protestant
pastor, Samuel Bochart. By the age of twenty he was recognized as one of the most promising scholars of his time. In 1651 he went to Paris, where he formed a friendship with Gabriel Naudé, conservator of the Mazarin Library. In the following year Samuel Bochart, being invited by Queen Christina of Sweden to her court at Stockholm, took his friend Huet with him
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Fronde
The Fronde
Fronde
(French pronunciation: ​[fʀɔ̃d][1]) was a series of civil wars in France between 1648 and 1653, occurring in the midst of the Franco-Spanish War, which had begun in 1635. King Louis XIV confronted the combined opposition of the princes, the nobility, the law courts (parlements), and most of the French people, and yet won out in the end. The Fronde
Fronde
was divided into two campaigns, the Fronde
Fronde
of the parlements and the Fronde
Fronde
of the nobles.[2] The timing of the outbreak of the Fronde
Fronde
des parlements, directly after the Peace of Westphalia (1648) that ended the Thirty Years War, was significant. The nuclei of the armed bands that terrorized parts of France under aristocratic leaders during this period had been hardened in a generation of war in Germany, where troops still tended to operate autonomously
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Jean Racine
Jean Racine
Jean Racine
(French: [ʒɑ̃ ʁasin]), baptismal name Jean-Baptiste Racine (22 December 1639 – 21 April 1699), was a French dramatist, one of the three great playwrights of 17th-century France
France
(along with Molière
Molière
and Corneille), and an important literary figure in the Western tradition
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Madeleine De Scudéry
Madeleine de Scudéry
Madeleine de Scudéry
(15 November 1607 – 2 June 1701), often known simply as Mademoiselle de Scudéry, was a French writer. She was the younger sister of author Georges de Scudéry.Contents1 Biography 2 Works 3 Later years 4 Legacy 5 Cultural references 6 Literature 7 References 8 External linksBiography[edit] Born at Le Havre, Normandy, in northern France, she is said to have been very plain as well as without fortune, but she was exceedingly well-educated
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Nicolas Boileau-Despréaux
Nicolas Boileau-Despréaux
Nicolas Boileau-Despréaux
(French: [nikɔla bwalo depʁeo]; 1 November 1636 – 13 March 1711), often known simply as Boileau, was a French poet and critic. He did much to reform the prevailing form of French poetry, in the same way that Blaise Pascal
Blaise Pascal
did to reform the prose. He was greatly influenced by Horace.Contents1 Family and education 2 1660s 3 1670s 4 1700–1711 5 References 6 Sources 7 Further reading 8 External linksFamily and education[edit] Boileau was the fifteenth child of Gilles Boileau, a clerk in the parlement. Two of his brothers attained some distinction: Gilles Boileau, the author of a translation of Epictetus; and Jacques Boileau, who became a canon of the Sainte-Chapelle, and made valuable contributions to church history. The surname "Despréaux" was derived from a small property at Crosne near Villeneuve-Saint-Georges
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Romance (heroic Literature)
As a literary genre of high culture, romance or chivalric romance is a type of prose and verse narrative that was popular in the aristocratic circles of High Medieval
Medieval
and Early Modern Europe. They were fantastic stories about marvel-filled adventures, often of a knight-errant portrayed as having heroic qualities, who goes on a quest, yet it is "the emphasis on love and courtly manners distinguishes it from the chanson de geste and other kinds of epic, in which masculine military heroism predominates."[1] Popular literature also drew on themes of romance, but with ironic, satiric or burlesque intent. Romances reworked legends, fairy tales, and history to suit the readers' and hearers' tastes, but by c. 1600 they were out of fashion, and Miguel de Cervantes famously burlesqued them in his novel Don Quixote
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Savoy
Savoy
Savoy
(/səˈvɔɪ/;[2] Arpitan: Savouè, IPA: [saˈvwɛ]; French: Savoie
Savoie
[savwa]; Italian: Savoia [saˈvɔːja]; German: Savoyen [zaˈvɔʏ̯ən]) is a cultural region in Western Europe. It comprises roughly the territory of the Western Alps
Western Alps
between Lake Geneva
Lake Geneva
in the north and Dauphiné
Dauphiné
in the south. The historical land of Savoy
Savoy
emerged as the feudal territory of the House of Savoy
House of Savoy
during the 11th to 14th centuries
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