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Macropinosome
Macropinosomes are a type of cellular compartment that form as a result of macropinocytosis.Contents1 Function 2 Regulation 3 Role in pathogenesis 4 ReferencesFunction[edit] Macropinosomes serve primarily in the uptake of solutes from the extracellular fluid.[1][2] Once inside the cell, macropinosomes undergo a process of maturation characterized by increasing expression of Rab7 as they progress through the endocytic pathway, until they fuse with lysosomes where the contents of the macropinosome are degraded.[3] Regulation[edit] PI3K
PI3K
and phosphoinositide phospholipase C activation have been shown to be necessary for macropinosome f
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Cellular Compartment
Cellular compartments in cell biology comprise all of the closed parts within the cytosol of a eukaryotic cell, usually surrounded by a single or double lipid layer membrane. These compartments are often, but not always, defined as membrane enclosed regions. The formation of cellular compartments is called compartmentalization. Both organelles, the mitochondria and chloroplasts (in photosynthetic organisms), are compartments that are believed to be of endosymbiotic origin. Other compartments such as peroxisomes, lysosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum, the cell nucleus or the Golgi apparatus
Golgi apparatus
are not of endosymbiotic origin
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Pathogenesis
The pathogenesis of a disease is the biological mechanism (or mechanisms) that leads to the diseased state. The term can also describe the origin and development of the disease, and whether it is acute, chronic, or recurrent. The word comes from the Greek πάθος pathos ("disease") and γένεσις genesis ("creation").Contents1 Description 2 See also 3 References 4 Further readingDescription[edit] Types of pathogenesis include microbial infection, inflammation, malignancy and tissue breakdown. For example, bacterial pathogenesis is the mechanism by which bacteria cause infectious illness. Most diseases are caused by multiple processes
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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PubMed Central
PubMed
PubMed
Central (PMC) is a free digital repository that archives publicly accessible full-text scholarly articles that have been published within the biomedical and life sciences journal literature. As one of the major research databases within the suite of resources that have been developed by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), PubMed
PubMed
Central is much more than just a document repository
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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PubMed Identifier
PubMed
PubMed
is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine
United States National Library of Medicine
(NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval. From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries
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Human Gastrointestinal Tract
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces. The mouth, esophagus, stomach, and intestines are part of the gastrointestinal tract. Gastrointestinal is an adjective meaning of or pertaining to the stomach and intestines. A tract is a collection of related anatomic structures or a series of connected body organs. All bilaterians have a gastrointestinal tract, also called a gut or an alimentary canal. This is a tube that transfers food to the organs of digestion.[1] In large bilaterians, the gastrointestinal tract generally also has an exit, the anus, by which the animal disposes of feces (solid wastes)
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Escherichia Coli
Bacillus coli
Bacillus coli
communis Escherich 1885 Escherichia
Escherichia
coli (/ˌɛʃɪˈrɪkiə ˈkoʊlaɪ/;[1] also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia
Escherichia
that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).[2][3] Most E. coli strains are harmless, but some serotypes can cause serious food poisoning in their hosts, and are occasionally responsible for product recalls due to food contamination.[4][5] The harmless strains are part of the normal flora of the gut, and can benefit their hosts by producing vitamin K2,[6] and preventing colonization of the intestine with pathogenic bacteria, having a symbiotic relationship.[7][8] E. coli is expelled into the environment within fecal matter
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Enterohemorrhagic
Shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) and verotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC) are strains of the bacterium Escherichia coli that produce either Shiga toxin or Shiga-like toxin (verotoxin). Only a minority of the strains cause illness in humans.[1] The ones that do are collectively known as enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) and are major causes of foodborne illness. When infecting humans, they often cause gastroenteritis, enterocolitis, and bloody diarrhea (hence the name "enterohemorrhagic") and sometimes cause the severe complication of hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS).[2] The group and its subgroups are known by various names. They are distinguished from other pathotypes of intestinal pathogenic E. coli including enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), enteroaggregative E
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Ebola Virus Disease
Ebola virus
Ebola virus
disease (EVD), also known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) or simply Ebola, is a viral hemorrhagic fever of humans and other primates caused by ebolaviruses.[1] Signs and symptoms typically start between two days and three weeks after contracting the virus with a fever, sore throat, muscular pain, and headaches.[1] Then, vomiting, diarrhea and rash usually follow, along with decreased function of the liver and kidneys.[1] At this time, some people begin to bleed both internally and externally.[1] The disease has a high risk of death, killing between 25 and 90 percent of those infected, with an average of about 50 per
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Zaire Ebolavirus
Ebola virus
Ebola virus
(EBOV)The species Zaire
Zaire
ebolavirus is a virological taxon included in the genus Ebolavirus, family Filoviridae, order Mononegavirales
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Pathogen
In biology, a pathogen (Greek: πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a germ in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.[1][2] Typically the term is used to describe an infectious agent such as a virus, bacterium, protozoa, prion, a fungus, or other micro-organism.[3][4] The scientific study of pathogens is called Pathology. There are several substrates including pathways where the pathogens can invade a host. The principal pathways have different episodic time frames, but soil contamination has the longest or most persistent potential for harboring a pathogen
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Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate
(cAMP, cyclic AMP, or 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a second messenger important in many biological processes. cAMP is a derivative of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and used for intracellular signal transduction in many different organisms, conveying the cAMP-dependent pathway
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Sorting Nexin
Sorting nexins are a large group of proteins that are localized in the cytoplasm and have the potential for membrane association either through their lipid-binding PX domain (a phospholipid-binding motif) or through protein–protein interactions with membrane-associated protein complexes[2][3] Some members of this family have been shown to facilitate protein sorting.Contents1 Family members 2 Structure 3 References 4 External linksFamily members[edit] In humans, sorting nexins are transcribed from the following genes:Genes Domain CompositionN-terminus Mid-1 Mid-2 Mid-3 C-terminusSNX1, SNX2 Sorting_nexin_N – PX – BAR[4] (Vps5)SNX4, SNX7, SNX8, SNX30 – – PX – BAR[4] (Vsp5)SNX5, SNX6, SNX32 – – PX – BAR[4]SNX9, SNX18, SNX33 SH3 – PX – BAR[4] (BAR_3_WASP_bdg)[5]SNX13, SNX14, SNX19, SNX25 PXA[6] RGS PX – Nexin_CSNX15 – – PX – MIT[7]SNX17, SNX31 – – PX RA[8] FERM_M[9]SN
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Fibroblast
A fibroblast is a type of cell that synthesizes the extracellular matrix and collagen,[1] the structural framework (stroma) for animal tissues, and plays a critical role in wound healing. Fibroblasts are the most common cells of connective tissue in animals.Contents1 Structure1.1 Relationship with fibrocytes 1.2 Development2 Function2.1 Inflammation 2.2 Tumour mediation 2.3 Secondary actions3 See also 4 References 5 External linksStructure[edit]Microfilaments, mitochondria, and nuclei in fibroblast cellsFibroblasts have a branched cytoplasm surrounding an elliptical, speckled nucleus having two or more nucleoli. Active fibroblasts can be recognized by their abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum. Inactive fibroblasts (called fibrocytes) are smaller, spindle shaped, and have a reduced rough endoplasmic reticulum
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