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Macropinosome
MACROPINOSOMES are a type of cellular compartment that form as a result of macropinocytosis . CONTENTS * 1 Function * 2 Regulation * 3 Role in pathogenesis * 4 References FUNCTIONMacropinosomes serve primarily in the uptake of solutes from the extracellular fluid . Once inside the cell, macropinosomes undergo a process of maturation characterized by increasing expression of Rab7 as they progress through the endocytic pathway , until they fuse with lysosomes where the contents of the macropinosome are degraded. REGULATION PI3K and phosphoinositide phospholipase C activation have been shown to be necessary for macropinosome formation in fibroblasts . Members of the SNX family have also been shown to be important in macropinosome formation. Conversely, cyclic AMP has been shown to promote regurgitation from macropinosomes
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Enterohemorrhagic
SHIGATOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI (STEC) and VEROTOXIGENIC E. COLI (VTEC) are strains of the bacterium Escherichia coli that produce either Shiga toxin or Shiga-like toxin (verotoxin). Only a minority of the strains cause illness in humans. The ones that do are collectively known as ENTEROHEMORRHAGIC E. COLI (EHEC) and are major causes of foodborne illness . When infecting humans, they often cause gastroenteritis , enterocolitis , and bloody diarrhea (hence the name "enterohemorrhagic") and sometimes cause the severe complication of hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). The group and its subgroups are known by various names . They are distinguished from other pathotypes of intestinal pathogenic E. coli including enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), and diffusely adherent E. coli (DAEC)
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Ebola Virus Disease
EBOLA VIRUS DISEASE (EVD), also known as EBOLA HEMORRHAGIC FEVER (EHF) or simply EBOLA, is a viral hemorrhagic fever of humans and other primates caused by ebolaviruses . Signs and symptoms typically start between two days and three weeks after contracting the virus with a fever , sore throat , muscular pain , and headaches . Then, vomiting , diarrhea and rash usually follow, along with decreased function of the liver and kidneys . At this time, some people begin to bleed both internally and externally. The disease has a high risk of death, killing between 25 and 90 percent of those infected, with an average of about 50 percent. This is often due to low blood pressure from fluid loss , and typically follows six to sixteen days after symptoms appear. The virus spreads by direct contact with body fluids , such as blood , of an infected human or other animals. This may also occur through contact with an item recently contaminated with bodily fluids
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Zaire Ebolavirus
Ebola virus (EBOV) The species ZAIRE EBOLAVIRUS is a virological taxon included in the genus Ebolavirus , family Filoviridae , order Mononegavirales . The species has a single virus member, Ebola virus (EBOV), and it is the type species for the genus Ebolavirus . The members of the species are called Zaire ebolaviruses. CONTENTS * 1 Nomenclature * 2 Species inclusion criteria * 3 Evolutionary history * 4 References * 5 External links NOMENCLATURE See also: Ebola virus § History and nomenclature The name Zaire ebolavirus is derived from Zaire and the taxonomic suffix ebolavirus (which denotes an ebolavirus species and refers to the Ebola River ). Zaire ebolavirus is pronounced /zɑːˈɪər iːˈboʊləvaɪrəs/ (zah-EER ee-BOH-lə-vy-rəs )
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Cellular Compartment
CELLULAR COMPARTMENTS in cell biology comprise all of the closed parts within the cytosol of a eukaryotic cell , usually surrounded by a single or double lipid layer membrane . These compartments are often, but not always, defined as membrane enclosed regions. The formation of cellular compartments is called compartmentalization. Both organelles , the mitochondria and chloroplasts (in photosynthetic organisms), are compartments that are believed to be of endosymbiotic origin. Other compartments such as peroxisomes , lysosomes , the endoplasmic reticulum , the cell nucleus or the Golgi apparatus are not of endosymbiotic origin. Smaller elements like vesicles , and sometimes even microtubules can also be counted as compartments
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Escherichia Coli
Bacillus coli communis Escherich 1885 ESCHERICHIA COLI (/ˌɛʃᵻˈrɪkiə ˈkoʊlaɪ/ ; also known as E. COLI) is a gram-negative , facultatively anaerobic , rod-shaped , coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms). Most E. coli strains are harmless, but some serotypes can cause serious food poisoning in their hosts, and are occasionally responsible for product recalls due to food contamination . The harmless strains are part of the normal flora of the gut , and can benefit their hosts by producing vitamin K2 , and preventing colonization of the intestine with pathogenic bacteria , having a symbiotic relationship. E. coli is expelled into the environment within fecal matter. The bacterium grows massively in fresh fecal matter under aerobic conditions for 3 days, but its numbers decline slowly afterwards. E
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Human Gastrointestinal Tract
GASTROINTESTINAL is an adjective meaning of or pertaining to the stomach and INTESTINES. A tract is a collection of related anatomic structures or a series of connected body organs. The GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT (DIGESTIVE TRACT, GI TRACT, GIT, GUT, or ALIMENTARY CANAL) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces and urine . The mouth , oesophagus , stomach, and intestines are part of the human alimentary canal. All bilaterians have a gastrointestinal tract, also called a gut or an alimentary canal. This is a tube that transfers food to the organs of digestion . In large bilaterians, the gastrointestinal tract generally also has an exit, the anus , by which the animal disposes of feces (solid wastes). Some small bilaterians have no anus and dispose of solid wastes by other means (for example, through the mouth)
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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PubMed Central
PUBMED CENTRAL (PMC) is a free digital repository that archives publicly accessible full-text scholarly articles that have been published within the biomedical and life sciences journal literature. As one of the major research databases within the suite of resources that have been developed by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), PubMed
PubMed
Central is much more than just a document repository. Submissions into PMC undergo an indexing and formatting procedure which results in enhanced metadata, medical ontology , and unique identifiers which all enrich the XML
XML
structured data for each article on deposit. Content within PMC can easily be interlinked to many other NCBI databases and accessed via Entrez
Entrez
search and retrieval systems, further enhancing the public's ability to freely discover, read and build upon this portfolio of biomedical knowledge
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
( ISO
ISO
). An implementation of the Handle System , DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL , indicating where the object can be found
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PubMed Identifier
PUBMED is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval . From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries . PubMed, first released in January 1996, ushered in the era of private, free, home- and office-based MEDLINE searching. The PubMed
PubMed
system was offered free to the public in June 1997, when MEDLINE searches via the Web were demonstrated, in a ceremony, by Vice President Al Gore
Al Gore

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Pathogenesis
The PATHOGENESIS of a disease is the biological mechanism (or mechanisms) that leads to the diseased state. The term can also describe the origin and development of the disease, and whether it is acute , chronic , or recurrent . The word comes from the Greek πάθος pathos ("disease") and γένεσις genesis ("creation"). CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 Further reading DESCRIPTIONTypes of pathogenesis include microbial infection , inflammation , malignancy and tissue breakdown . For example, bacterial pathogenesis is the mechanism by which bacteria cause infectious illness. Most diseases are caused by multiple processes. For example, certain cancers arise from dysfunction of the immune system (skin tumors and lymphoma after a renal transplant , which requires immunosuppression )
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Pathogen
In biology , a PATHOGEN (Greek : πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease ; the term came into use in the 1880s. Typically the term is used to describe an infectious agent such as a virus , bacterium , protozoa , prion , a fungus , or other micro-organism. There are several substrates including pathways where the pathogens can invade a host. The principal pathways have different episodic time frames, but soil contamination has the longest or most persistent potential for harboring a pathogen. Diseases caused by organisms in humans are known as pathogenic diseases
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Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate
CYCLIC ADENOSINE MONOPHOSPHATE (CAMP, CYCLIC AMP, or 3\',5\'-CYCLIC ADENOSINE MONOPHOSPHATE ) is a second messenger important in many biological processes. cAMP is a derivative of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and used for intracellular signal transduction in many different organisms, conveying the cAMP-dependent pathway . It should not be confused with 5\'- AMP-activated protein kinase (AMP-activated protein kinase )
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RAB7B
NM_001164522 NM_001304839 NM_177403 NM_145509 NM_001311096 REFSEQ (PROTEIN)NP_001157994 NP_001291768 NP_796377 NP_001298025 NP_663484 LOCATION (UCSC) Chr 1: 205.98 – 206 Mb Chr 1: 131.69 – 131.72 Mb PUBMED SEARCH Wikidata
Wikidata
View/Edit Human View/Edit MouseRAS-RELATED PROTEIN RAB-7B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RAB7B
RAB7B
gene. FUNCTIONRab7 is a small GTPase that plays a role in the transport and degradation of proteins in endosomes and lysosomes in mammalian cells. Rab7b, is localized to lysosome-associated compartments and is selectively expressed in monocytic cells. By promoting the degradation of toll-like receptor 4 , RAB7B
RAB7B
can negatively regulate the inflammatory activation of macrophages
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Extracellular Fluid
EXTRACELLULAR FLUID (ECF) or EXTRACELLULAR FLUID VOLUME (ECFV) usually denotes all body fluid outside the cells. The remainder is called intracellular fluid (ICF). The ECF and ICF are the two major fluid compartments , which together account for total body water (TBW). In some animals, including mammals , the ECF can be divided into two major subcompartments, interstitial fluid and blood plasma , which make up at least 97%. The extracellular fluid also includes the transcellular fluid , which comprises about 2.5%. It also includes the acellular portion of lymph by the obligate logic of the outside-the-cells definition, although discussions of ECF usually treat lymph as negligible or implicitly lump it together with the interstitial fluid
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