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Machin Series
The Machin series
Machin series
/ˈmeɪtʃɪn/ of postage stamps is the main definitive stamp series in the United Kingdom, used since 5 June 1967. It is the second series to figure the image of Elizabeth II, replacing the Wilding series. Designed by Arnold Machin, they consist simply of the sculpted profile of the Queen and a denomination, and are almost always in a single colour. After five decades of service, the series has encompassed almost all changes and innovations in British stamp printing. This has been encouraging an abundant specialised philatelic collectors' market and associated literature. Arnold Machin's 1964 effigy of the Queen was replaced on British coins in 1984 by an older-looking effigy by Raphael Maklouf
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Machine Head
A machine head (also referred to as a tuning machine, tuner, or gear head) is a geared apparatus for tuning stringed musical instruments by adjusting string tension. Machine heads are used on mandolins, guitars, double basses etc., and are usually located on the instrument's headstock. Non-geared tuning devices that are used on violins, violas, cellos, lutes, older Flamenco guitars, ukuleles etc., are known as friction pegs. Friction pegs hold the string in tune by way of friction caused by their tapered shape and by the string pull created by the tight string
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Phosphor Band
Phosphor bands were introduced on British stamps from 1959 as a replacement for the previous graphite lined stamps as an aid in the mechanical sorting of mail. The phosphor is applied in vertical bands, or more recently, all over the stamp, and fluoresces under ultra-violet light. This enables the mail sorting machine to face the mail and sort it into types. Phosphor is now widely used on stamps around the world
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Harrison & Sons
Harrison and Sons Limited was a major worldwide engraver and printer of postage stamps and banknotes. The company was established in 1750 by Thomas Harrison; in 1839 Thomas Richard Harrison entered into partnership with John William Parker, creating Harrison and Co. It went through similar names and retained a link with the Harrison family until 1979 when Richard Harrison left the company.[1] It obtained its first Post Office contract in 1881.[2] The company won the contract to print the single colour United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Edward VII stamps in 1911 after the Post Office decided not to renew its contract with De La Rue
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Photogravure
Photogravure
Photogravure
is an intaglio printmaking or photo-mechanical process whereby a copper plate is coated with a light-sensitive gelatin tissue which had been exposed to a film positive, and then etched, resulting in a high quality intaglio print that can reproduce the detail and continuous tones of a photograph.Contents1 History 2 Qualities 3 Technique3.1 Printing the plate4 Alternatives4.1 Digital direct-to-plate photogravure 4.2 Photo-polymergravure / Polymer
Polymer
photogravure5 See also 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit]A 1901 photogravure illustration by W. E. F. Britten for Alfred, Lord Tennyson's poem St. Simeon Stylites.The earliest forms of photogravure were developed by two original pioneers of photography itself, first Nicéphore Niépce
Nicéphore Niépce
in France in the 1820s, and later Henry Fox Talbot
Henry Fox Talbot
in England
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Engraving
Engraving
Engraving
is the practice of incising a design onto a hard, usually flat surface by cutting grooves into it. The result may be a decorated object in itself, as when silver, gold, steel, or glass are engraved, or may provide an intaglio printing plate, of copper or another metal, for printing images on paper as prints or illustrations; these images are also called engravings. Wood engraving
Wood engraving
is a form of relief printing and is not covered in this article. Engraving
Engraving
was a historically important method of producing images on paper in artistic printmaking, in mapmaking, and also for commercial reproductions and illustrations for books and magazines
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Lithography
Lithography
Lithography
(from Ancient Greek λίθος, lithos, meaning 'stone', and γράφειν, graphein, meaning 'to write') is a method of printing originally based on the immiscibility of oil and water.[1] The printing is from a stone (lithographic limestone) or a metal plate with a smooth surface. It was invented in 1796 by German author and actor Alois Senefelder
Alois Senefelder
as a cheap method of publishing theatrical works.[2][3] Lithography
Lithography
can be used to print text or artwork onto paper or other suitable material.[4] Lithography
Lithography
originally used an image drawn with oil, fat, or wax onto the surface of a smooth, level lithographic limestone plate. The stone was treated with a mixture of acid and gum arabic, etching the portions of the stone that were not protected by the grease-based image
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William Wyon
William Wyon
William Wyon
RA (1795 in Birmingham
Birmingham
– 29 October 1851), was official chief engraver at the Royal Mint
Royal Mint
from 1828 until his death. Indian rupee
Indian rupee
engraved by Wyon.Obverse: Crowned bust of Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
surrounded by her name. Reverse: Face value, country and date surrounded by wreath. Coin
Coin
minted in 1862 and made of 91.7% silver.Contents1 Biography 2 Designs 3 References 4 Bibliography 5 External linksBiography[edit] Wyon was born in Birmingham
Birmingham
and was apprenticed to his father, a die sinker, in 1809.[1] In 1816, he went to London
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Victoria Of The United Kingdom
Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom
Queen of the United Kingdom
of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. On 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India. Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and King George III
King George III
died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died, leaving no surviving legitimate children. The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the sovereign held relatively little direct political power
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Self-adhesive Stamp
A self-adhesive stamp is a postage stamp with a pressure-sensitive adhesive that does not require moistening in order to adhere to paper. They are usually issued on a removable backing paper. They were first issued by such tropical climates as Sierra Leone in February 1964[1] and Tonga in April 1969 in an attempt to avoid the tendency of traditional water-activated stamps to stick together in humid conditions.[2] They also made die cutting into fanciful and unique shapes easier. The United States Postal Service's first foray into self-adhesive stamps was in 1974 with the 10-cent dove weathervane,[1] produced by Avery Dennison,[3] that soon became discolored due to the instability of the adhesive. It was another 15 years (1989) before another such stamp was issued by the USPS.[2] Stamp collectors criticized the format, as the rubber base adhesive used tended to progressively yellow the stamps
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Iridescence
Iridescence
Iridescence
(also known as goniochromism) is the phenomenon of certain surfaces that appear to gradually change colour as the angle of view or the angle of illumination changes. Examples of iridescence include soap bubbles, butterfly wings and seashells, as well as certain minerals
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Football Pool
In the United Kingdom, the football pools, often referred to as "the pools", is a betting pool based on predicting the outcome of top-level association football matches taking place in the coming week. The pools are typically cheap to enter, with the potential to win a very large sum of money. Entries were traditionally submitted through the post or via collector agents, although it is now possible to play online. Agents would have a specific area in which they collected entries; traditionally, they were paid a set share of every ticket[clarification needed] they sold. The traditional and most popular game was the Treble Chance, now branded the Classic Pools game. Players pick 10, 11 or 12 football games from the offered fixtures to finish as a draw, in which each team scores at least one goal
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John Hedgecoe
John Hedgecoe (24 March 1932 – 3 June 2010)[1] was a British photographer and author of over 30 books on photography.[2] He established the photography department in 1965 at the Royal College of Art, where he was Professor from 1975 to 1994 and Professor Emeritus until his death.[1] He was also Pro-Rector of the college from 1981 to 1994.[3] His photographs appear in permanent collections at the New York Museum of Modern Art and London's National Portrait Gallery.[2]Contents1 Early life 2 Education 3 Creative work 4 Postage stamps 5 Personal life 6 Publications 7 ReferencesEarly life[edit] Hedgecoe was born in Brentford, Middlesex. Born the son of a banker, John Hedgecoe received his first camera from his father at the age of 14. Hedgecoe and his family were evacuated during World War II
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Cancellation (mail)
A cancellation (or cancel for short; French: "oblitération") is a postal marking applied on a postage stamp or postal stationery to deface the stamp and prevent its re-use. Cancellations come in a huge variety of designs, shapes, sizes and colors. Modern United States cancellations commonly include the date and post office location where the stamps were mailed, in addition to lines or bars designed to cover the stamp itself. The term "postal marking" sometimes is used to refer specifically to the part that contains the date and posting location, although the term often is used interchangeably with "cancellation."[1] The portion of a cancellation that is designed to deface the stamp and does not contain writing is also called the "obliteration"[2] or killer. Some stamps are issued pre-cancelled with a printed or stamped cancellation and do not need to have a cancellation added. Cancellations can affect the value of stamps to collectors, positively or negatively
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Vermilion
Vermilion
Vermilion
(sometimes spelled vermillion[2][3]) is both a brilliant red or scarlet pigment originally made from the powdered mineral cinnabar and the name of the resulting color.[4] It was widely used in the art and decoration of Ancient Rome, in the illuminated manuscripts of the Middle Ages, in the paintings of the Renaissance, as sindoor in India, and in the art and lacquerware of China.[5][6]Contents1 Etymology 2 Chemistry and manufacture 3 Gallery 4 History4.1 Antiquity 4.2 In the Americas 4.3 In the Middle Ages and Renaissance 4.4 Chinese red5 In art and culture<
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Applied Psychology Unit
The Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit is a branch of the UK Medical Research Council, based in Cambridge, England. The CBSU is a world-leading centre for cognitive neuroscience, with a mission to improve human health by understanding and enhancing cognition and behaviour in health, disease and disorder
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