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Macaronesia
Macaronesia
Macaronesia
is a collection of four archipelagos in the North Atlantic Ocean off the coast of the continents of Europe
Europe
and Africa. The Macaronesian islands belong to three countries: Portugal, Spain, and Cape Verde.[1][2][3] Politically, the islands belonging to Portugal and Spain
Spain
are part of Europe. Biogeographically, Macaronesia
Macaronesia
is part of Africa, with the exception of the Azores, which is part of Europe.[4]Contents1 Etymology 2 Archipelagos 3 Geography and geology 4 Conservation issues 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksEtymology[edit] The name is derived from the Greek words for "islands of the fortunate" μακάρων νῆσοι makárōn nêsoi, a term used by Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
geographers for islands to the west of the Straits of Gibraltar
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Biota (ecology)
A biome /ˈbaɪoʊm/ is a community of plants and animals that have common characteristics for the environment they exist in. They can be found over a range of continents. Biomes are distinct biological communities that have formed in response to a shared physical climate.[1][2] "Biome" is a broader term than "habitat"; any biome can comprise a variety of habitats. While a biome can cover large areas, a microbiome is a mix of organisms that coexist in a defined space on a much smaller scale. For example, the human microbiome is the collection of bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms that are present on a human body.[3] A 'biota' is the total collection of organisms of a geographic region or a time period, from local geographic scales and instantaneous temporal scales all the way up to whole-planet and whole-timescale spatiotemporal scales
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Vegetation Type
Vegetation
Vegetation
type or plant community refers to members of a group or aspect of plants that are often found growing in an area together (plant associates), or that share similar environmental conditions, characterized by the presence of one or more dominant species.[1]:112-3[2] They may be named for zones with those conditions, such as elevation ranges, soil types, temperature ranges, precipitation ranges, or for one or more of the dominant plants.[1]:119[2] See also[edit]Biome VegetationReferences[edit]^ a b Introduction to California Plant Life; Robert Ornduff, Phyllis M
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Climate
Atmospheric physics Atmospheric dynamics (category) Atmospheric chemistry
Atmospheric chemistry
(category)Meteorology Weather
Wea

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Archipelago
An archipelago (/ɑːrkɪˈpɛləɡoʊ/ ( listen) ark-i-PEL-ə-goh), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea containing a small number of scattered islands. The word archipelago is derived from the Greek ἄρχι- – arkhi- ("chief") and πέλαγος – pélagos ("sea") through the Italian arcipelago. In Italian, possibly following a tradition of antiquity, the Archipelago
Archipelago
(from medieval Greek *ἀρχιπέλαγος and Latin archipelagus) was the proper name for the Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
and, later, usage shifted to refer to the Aegean Islands
Aegean Islands
(since the sea is remarkable for its large number of islands).Contents1 Types 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksTypes[edit] Archipelagos may be found isolated in large amounts of water or neighbouring a large land mass
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Mediterranean Climate
A Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
/ˌmɛdɪtəˈreɪniən/ or dry summer climate, is the climate typical of areas in the Mediterranean Basin. The Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
is usually characterized by rainy winters and dry, warm to hot summers. While the climate receives its name from the Mediterranean Sea, an area where this climate is commonplace, it is also present in other areas of the planet, although with variations in the distribution of temperatures
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Humid Subtropical Climate
A humid subtropical climate is a zone of climate characterized by hot, humid summers and mild winters. These climates normally lie on the southeast side of all continents, generally between latitudes 25° and 35° and are located poleward from adjacent tropical climates, and south of temperate climates. While many subtropical climates tend to be on or near a coast, in some cases they extend inland, most notably in China
China
and the United States
United States
(US). The subtropical climate was created in the 1966 update of the Koppen climate classification. The Trewartha climate classification
Trewartha climate classification
sought to redefine middle latitude climates into smaller zones (the original Köppen system grouped all middle latitude climates into a single zone, which was the major criticism)
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Tropical Climate
A tropical climate in the Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
is a non-arid climate in which all twelve months have mean temperatures of at least 18 °C (64 °F). In tropical climates there are often only two seasons: a wet season and a dry season. Tropical
Tropical
climates are frost-free, and changes in the solar angle are small. In tropical climates temperature remains relatively constant (hot) throughout the year.Contents1 Sub types1.1 Tropical
Tropical
rainforest climate 1.2 Tropical
Tropical
monsoon climate 1.3 Tropical
Tropical
wet and dry or savanna climate 1.4 Exceptions2 Intertropical Convergence Zone 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksSub types[edit]This section needs additional citations for verification
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Cloud Forest
A cloud forest, also called a water forest, is a generally tropical or subtropical, evergreen, montane, moist forest characterized by a persistent, frequent or seasonal low-level cloud cover, usually at the canopy level, formally described in the International Cloud
Cloud
Atlas (2017) as silvagenitus.[1] Cloud
Cloud
forests often exhibit an abundance of mosses covering the ground and vegetation, in which case they are also referred to as mossy forests
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Relict
A relict is a surviving remnant of a natural phenomenon.In biology a relict (or relic) is an organism that at an earlier time was abundant in a large area but now occurs at only one or a few small areas. In ecology, an ecosystem which originally ranged over a large expanse, but is now narrowly confined, may be termed a relict. In geology, a relict is a structure or mineral from a parent rock that did not undergo metamorphosis when the surrounding rock did, or a rock that survived a destructive geologic process. In geomorphology, a relict landform is a landform formed by either erosive or constructive surficial processes that are no longer active as they were in the past. In agronomy, a relict crop is a crop which was previously grown extensively, but is now only used in one limited region, or a small number of isolated regions. In history (as revealed in DNA testing), a relict population refers to an ancient people in an area who have been largely supplanted by a later group of
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Humidity
Humidity
Humidity
is the amount of water vapor present in the air. Water vapor is the gaseous state of water and is invisible to the human eye.[1] Humidity
Humidity
indicates the likelihood of precipitation, dew, or fog. Higher humidity reduces the effectiveness of sweating in cooling the body by reducing the rate of evaporation of moisture from the skin. This effect is calculated in a heat index table or humidex. The amount of water vapor that is needed to achieve saturation increases as the temperature increases. As the temperature of a parcel of water becomes lower it will eventually reach the point of saturation without adding or losing water mass. The differences in the amount of water vapor in a parcel of air can be quite large
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Volcano
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface. Earth's volcanoes occur because its crust is broken into 17 major, rigid tectonic plates that float on a hotter, softer layer in its mantle.[1] Therefore, on Earth, volcanoes are generally found where tectonic plates are diverging or converging, and most are found underwater. For example, a mid-oceanic ridge, such as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, has volcanoes caused by divergent tectonic plates whereas the Pacific Ring of Fire
Pacific Ring of Fire
has volcanoes caused by convergent tectonic plates
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Endemic
Endemism
Endemism
is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere. The extreme opposite of endemism is cosmopolitan distribution. An alternative term for a species that is endemic is precinctive, which applies to species (and subspecific categories) that are restricted to a defined geographical area.Contents1 Etymology 2 Overview 3 Threats to highly endemistic regions 4 Notes 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksEtymology[edit] The word endemic is from New Latin
New Latin
endēmicus, from Greek ενδήμος, endēmos, "native". Endēmos is formed of en meaning "in", and dēmos meaning "the people".[1] The term "precinctive" has been suggested by some scientists,[a] and was first used in botany by MacCaughey in 1917
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Biogeography
Biogeography
Biogeography
is the study of the distribution of species and ecosystems in geographic space and through geological time. Organisms and biological communities often vary in a regular fashion along geographic gradients of latitude, elevation, isolation and habitat area.[1] Phytogeography
Phytogeography
is the branch of biogeography that studies the distribution of plants
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Jumping Spider
See List of Salticidae genera.Diversity600+ genera, 5000+ speciesThe jumping spider family (Salticidae) contains over 600 described genera and more than 5800 described species,[1] making it the largest family of spiders with about 13% of all species.[2] Jumping spiders have some of the best vision among arthropods and use it in courtship, hunting, and navigation. Although they normally move unobtrusively and fairly slowly, most species are capable of very agile jumps, notably when hunting, but sometimes in response to sudden threats or crossing long gaps. Both their book lungs and tracheal system are well-developed, and they use both systems (bimodal breathing). Jumping spiders are generally recognized by their eye pattern
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Ice Age
An ice age is a period of long-term reduction in the temperature of Earth's surface and atmosphere, resulting in the presence or expansion of continental and polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers. Within a long-term ice age, individual pulses of cold climate are termed "glacial periods" (or alternatively "glacials" or "glaciations" or colloquially as "ice age"), and intermittent warm periods are called "interglacials". In the terminology of glaciology, ice age implies the presence of extensive ice sheets in both northern and southern hemispheres.[1] By this definition, we are in an interglacial period—the Holocene—of the ice age
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