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Mabinogion
The Mabinogion
Mabinogion
(Welsh pronunciation: [mabɪˈnɔɡjɔn] ( listen)) are the earliest prose stories of the literature of Britain. The stories were compiled in Middle Welsh in the 12th–13th centuries from earlier oral traditions. The two main source manuscripts were created c. 1350–1410, as well as a few earlier fragments. These stories offer drama, philosophy, romance, tragedy, fantasy and humour, and were created by various narrators over time. The title covers a collection of eleven prose stories of widely different types. There is a classic hero quest, " Culhwch
Culhwch
and Olwen"; historic legend in "Lludd and Llefelys" glimpses a far off age; and other tales portray a very different King Arthur
King Arthur
from the later popular versions. The highly sophisticated complexity of the Four Branches of the Mabinogi defies categorisation
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Geoffrey Of Monmouth
Geoffrey of Monmouth
Monmouth
(Latin: Galfridus Monemutensis, Galfridus Arturus, Welsh: Gruffudd ap Arthur, Sieffre o Fynwy ; c.1095- c.1155) was a British cleric and one of the major figures in the development of British historiography and the popularity of tales of King Arthur. He is best known for his chronicle The History of the Kings of Britain (Latin: De gestis Britonum or Historia regum Britanniae),[1] which was widely popular in its day, being translated into various other languages from its original Latin
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William Owen Pughe
William Owen Pughe
William Owen Pughe
(7 August 1759 – 4 June 1835) was a Welsh antiquarian and grammarian best known for his Welsh and English Dictionary, published in 1803, but also known for his grammar books and "Pughisms" (neologisms).[1]Contents1 Biography 2 Personal 3 Works 4 Sources 5 References 6 External linksBiography[edit] He was born William Owen at Llanfihangel-y-pennant, Merionethshire, but the family moved to Ardudwy when William was about seven. He relocated to London in 1776. It was here that he got to know Owen Jones. Initially he worked as a clerk in a solicitor's office, subsequently becoming a teacher of Algebra in a girls' boarding school and also as a private tutor for the children of the wealthy. In 1783 he joined the Society of Gwyneddigion, and soon began compiling his Welsh-English dictionary
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Red Book Of Hergest
Hergest (pronounced with a hard g) is the name of two hamlets in Herefordshire, England, namely Upper Hergest and Lower Hergest. Hergest Ridge, a hill on the border between England
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Thomas Charles-Edwards
Thomas Mowbray Charles-Edwards FRHistS FLSW FBA (born 11 November 1943)[1] is an emeritus academic at Oxford University.[2] He formerly held the post of Jesus Professor of Celtic[3] and is a Professorial Fellow at Jesus College.[2]Contents1 Biography 2 Publications 3 References 4 External linksBiography[edit] He was educated at Ampleforth College
Ampleforth College
before reading History
History
at Corpus Christi College, Oxford, where he studied for a doctorate after taking the Diploma in Celtic Studies under Sir Idris Foster.[2][citation needed] He studied at the Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies
Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies
from 1967 to 1969
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Coventina
Coventina
Coventina
was a Romano-British
Romano-British
goddess of wells and springs. She is known from multiple inscriptions at one site in Northumberland
Northumberland
county of England, an area surrounding a wellspring near Carrawburgh
Carrawburgh
on Hadrian's Wall. It is possible that other inscriptions, two from Hispania
Hispania
and one from Narbonensis, refer to Coventina, but this is disputed.[1] Contents1 The Well 2 Statues 3 Inscriptions 4 Literary references 5 References 6 External linksThe Well[edit]Standing stone marking the site of Coventina's WellDedications to Coventina
Coventina
and votive deposits were found in a walled area which had been built to contain the outflow from a spring now called "Coventina's Well"
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Colophon (publishing)
In publishing, a colophon is a brief statement containing information about the publication of a book such as the place of publication, the publisher, and the date of publication. A colophon may also be emblematic or pictorial in nature. Colophons were formerly printed at the ends of books, but in modern works they are usually located at the verso of the title-leaf.Contents1 History 2 Printed books 3 Websites 4 See also 5 References 6 SourcesHistory[edit]Clay tablet: dictionary with colophon indicating storage emplacement in a library. From Warka, ancient Uruk, mid 1st century BC. On display at the Louvre.The term colophon derives from the Late Latin
Late Latin
colophōn, from the Greek κολοφών (meaning "summit" or "finishing touch").[1] It should not be confused with Colophon, an ancient city in Asia Minor, after which "colophony", or rosin (ronnel), is named. The existence of colophons can be dated back to antiquity
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Gallo-Roman Religion
Gallo-Roman religion
Gallo-Roman religion
was a fusion of the traditional religious practices of the Gauls, who were originally Celtic speakers, and the Roman and Hellenistic religions introduced to the region under Roman Imperial rule. It was the result of selective acculturation.Contents1 Deities 2 Practices 3 See also 4 SourcesDeities[edit] In some cases, Gaulish deity names were used as epithets for Roman deities, and vice versa, as with Lenus
Lenus
Mars or Jupiter Poeninus. In other cases, Roman gods were given Gaulish female partners – for example, Mercury was paired with Rosmerta
Rosmerta
and Sirona
Sirona
was partnered with Apollo
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Eric P. Hamp
Eric Pratt Hamp (born November 16, 1920) is an American linguist widely respected as a leading authority on Indo-European linguistics, with particular interests in Celtic languages
Celtic languages
and Albanian. Unlike many Indo-Europeanists, who work entirely on the basis of written materials, he has conducted extensive fieldwork on lesser-known Indo-European languages and dialects, such as Albanian, Arbëresh and Arvanitika; Breton; Welsh; Irish; and Scots Gaelic. His wide-ranging interests have also included American Indian languages. He served for many years as editor of the International Journal of American Linguistics and did field work on Quileute and Ojibwa
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Celtic Animism
According to classical sources[who?], the ancient Celts
Celts
were animists. They honoured the forces of nature, saw the world as inhabited by many spirits, and saw the Divine manifesting in aspects of the natural world.[1]Contents1 Overview: the sacred land 2 Honouring the waters 3 Spirits of the weather and the skies 4 Sacred trees 5 Animal omens 6 The hunt 7 NotesOverview: the sacred land[edit] The Celts <
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Eisteddfod
In Welsh culture, an eisteddfod (Welsh: [ə(i)ˈstɛðvɔd], plural eisteddfodau Welsh: [ə(i)stɛðˈvɔda(ɨ)]) is a Welsh festival of literature, music and performance. The tradition of such a meeting of Welsh artists dates back to at least the 12th century, when a festival of poetry and music was held by Rhys ap Gruffydd
Rhys ap Gruffydd
of Deheubarth
Deheubarth
at his court in Cardigan in 1176, but the decline of the bardic tradition made it fall into abeyance. The current format owes much to an 18th-century revival arising out of a number of informal eisteddfodau
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Saunders Lewis
Saunders Lewis
Saunders Lewis
(born John Saunders Lewis) (15 October 1893 – 1 September 1985) was a Welsh poet, dramatist, historian, literary critic, and political activist. He was a prominent Welsh nationalist and a founder of Plaid Genedlaethol Cymru (the National Party of Wales), later known as Plaid Cymru. Lewis is usually acknowledged as one of the most prominent figures of 20th century Welsh-language literature
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John Davies (Mallwyd)
Davies
Davies
is a patronymic Welsh surname. It derives from David (a Hebrew name meaning "beloved"),[2] the name of Wales's patron saint. In Wales the name is standardly pronounced /ˈdeɪvɪs/ DAY-viss, that is, identically to Davis. This pronunciation is also used by many outside the United Kingdom, where it competes with the spelling pronunciation /ˈdeɪviːz/ DAY-veez, although the latter pronunciation is universal in the United States. Davies
Davies
is the 2nd most common surname in Wales
Wales
and 8th most common in England of Welsh descendants.[1] where it is particularly widespread in the south-west, especially Cornwall
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Folklore
Folklore
Folklore
is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group. These include oral traditions such as tales, proverbs and jokes. They include material culture, ranging from traditional building styles to handmade toys common to the group. Folklore
Folklore
also includes customary lore, the forms and rituals of celebrations such as Christmas
Christmas
and weddings, folk dances and initiation rites. Each one of these, either singly or in combination, is considered a folklore artifact. Just as essential as the form, folklore also encompasses the transmission of these artifacts from one region to another or from one generation to the next
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Ulster Cycle
The Ulster
Ulster
Cycle (Irish: an Rúraíocht),[1] formerly known as the Red Branch Cycle, one of the four great cycles of Irish mythology, is a body of medieval Irish heroic legends and sagas of the traditional heroes of the Ulaid
Ulaid
in what is now eastern Ulster
Ulster
and northern Leinster, particularly counties Armagh, Down and Louth, and taking place around or before the 1st century AD.Contents1 Ulster
Ulster
Cycle stories 2 Texts 3 Texts in translation3.1 Online translations4 Adaptations 5 See also 6 References 7 External links Ulster
Ulster
Cycle stories[edit] The Ulster
Ulster
Cycle stories are set in and around the reign of King Conchobar mac Nessa, who rules the Ulaid
Ulaid
from Emain Macha
Macha
(now Navan Fort near Armagh)
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Manuscript
A manuscript (abbreviated MS for singular and MSS for plural) is any document written by hand or typewritten, as opposed to being mechanically printed or reproduced in some indirect or automated way.[1] More recently, it is understood to be an author's written, typed, or word-processed copy of a work, as distinguished from the print of the same.[2] Before the arrival of printing, all documents and books were manuscripts. Manuscripts are not defined by their contents, which may combine writing with mathematical calculations, maps, explanatory figures or illustrations. Manuscripts may be in book form, scrolls or in codex format
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