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Mabellina
MABELLINA is a genus of jumping spiders only found in Panama
Panama
. It contains only one species, MABELLINA PRESCOTTI. REFERENCES * ^ A B "Salticidae". World Spider
Spider
Catalog. Natural History Museum Bern. Retrieved 2017-04-17. * Platnick, Norman I
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Arthur M. Chickering
ARTHUR MERTON CHICKERING (March 23, 1887 - May 24, 1974) was a U.S. arachnologist . CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Legacy * 3 References * 4 External links BIOGRAPHYHe was born on March 23, 1887 in North Danville, Vermont . He studied in Yale University under Alexander Petrunkevitch until 1913. In 1916 he earned a master of science degree in cytology and in 1927 a Ph.D. for cytological studies on the spermatogenesis of insects . He taught at Beloit College from 1913 to 1918 and at Albion College from 1918 to 1957. From 1953 to 1971 he was Research Associate in Arachnology at the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard . He went on numerous field trips to Central America from 1928 to 1964. His favorite collecting method was sifting litter . Because R. V. Chamberlin did not return some of his collections in 1928 but instead published on them, Chickering preferred to work on his collections himself later on. He died on May 24, 1974 in Keene, New Hampshire
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Binomial Nomenclature
BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE, also called BINOMINAL NOMENCLATURE or BINARY NOMENCLATURE, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms , although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a BINOMIAL NAME (which may be shortened to just "binomial"), a BINOMEN, BINOMINAL NAME or a SCIENTIFIC NAME; more informally it is also called a LATIN NAME. The first part of the name identifies the genus to which the species belongs; the second part – the SPECIFIC NAME or SPECIFIC EPITHET – identifies the species within the genus. For example, humans belong to the genus Homo
Homo
and within this genus to the species Homo
Homo
sapiens . Tyrannosaurus
Tyrannosaurus
rex is probably the most widely known binomial
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Genus (biology)
A GENUS (/ˈdʒiːnəs/ , pl. GENERA) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms in biology . In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family . In binomial nomenclature , the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus. E.g. Felis catus
Felis catus
and Felis silvestris
Felis silvestris
are two species within the genus Felis
Felis
. Felis
Felis
is a genus within the family Felidae . The composition of a genus is determined by a taxonomist . The standards for genus classification are not strictly codified, so different authorities often produce different classifications for genera
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Salticidae
See List of Salticidae genera . DIVERSITY 500+ genera, 5000+ species The JUMPING SPIDER family (SALTICIDAE) contains over 600 described genera and more than 5800 described species , making it the largest family of spiders with about 13% of all species. Jumping spiders have some of the best vision among arthropods and use it in courtship, hunting, and navigation. Although they normally move unobtrusively and fairly slowly, most species are capable of very agile jumps, notably when hunting, but sometimes in response to sudden threats or crossing long gaps. Both their book lungs and tracheal system are well-developed, and they use both systems (bimodal breathing). Jumping spiders are generally recognized by their eye pattern. All jumping spiders have four pairs of eyes, with the anterior median pair being particularly large
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Panama
Coordinates : 9°N 80°W / 9°N 80°W / 9; -80 Republic of Panama República de Panamá (Spanish ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: "Pro Mundi Beneficio" "For the Benefit of the World" ANTHEM: Himno Istmeño (Spanish ) Hymn of the Isthmus Capital and largest city Panama City
Panama City
8°58′N 79°32′W / 8.967°N 79.533°W / 8.967; -79.533 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES Spanish <
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Jumping Spider
See List of Salticidae genera . DIVERSITY 500+ genera, 5000+ species The JUMPING SPIDER family (SALTICIDAE) contains over 600 described genera and more than 5800 described species , making it the largest family of spiders with about 13% of all species. Jumping spiders have some of the best vision among arthropods and use it in courtship, hunting, and navigation. Although they normally move unobtrusively and fairly slowly, most species are capable of very agile jumps, notably when hunting, but sometimes in response to sudden threats or crossing long gaps. Both their book lungs and tracheal system are well-developed, and they use both systems (bimodal breathing). Jumping spiders are generally recognized by their eye pattern. All jumping spiders have four pairs of eyes, with the anterior median pair being particularly large
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Araneomorphae
ARANEOMORPHAE (sometimes referred to as LABIDOGNATHA) is an infraorder of spiders . They are distinguished by having fangs that oppose each other and cross in a pinching action, in contrast to the Mygalomorphae (tarantulas and their close kin), which have fangs that are nearly parallel in alignment. With the exception of the Hypochilidae spiders, they have at most a single pair of book lungs . Both Araneomorphae
Araneomorphae
and Mygalomorphae belong to the suborder Opisthothelae , which comprises nearly all extant species of spider. Mesothelae
Mesothelae
, the only other suborder in Aranea, includes only about 100 living species
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Animal
ANIMALS are eukaryotic , multicellular organisms that form the biological kingdom ANIMALIA. With few exceptions, animals are motile (able to move), heterotrophic (consume organic material), reproduce sexually , and their embryonic development includes a blastula stage. The body plan of the animal derives from this blastula, differentiating specialized tissues and organs as it develops; this plan eventually becomes fixed, although some undergo metamorphosis at some stage in their lives. Zoology is the study of animals. Currently there are over 66 thousand (less than 5% of all animals) vertebrate species, and over 1.3 million (over 95% of all animals) invertebrate species in existence. Classification of animals into groups (taxonomy ) is accomplished using either the hierarchical Linnaean system; or cladistics , which displays diagrams (phylogenetic trees ) called cladograms to show relationships based on the evolutionary principle of the most recent common ancestor
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain , kingdom , phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class , order , family , genus and species . The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms
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Arthropod
Condylipoda Latreille, 1802 An ARTHROPOD (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton ), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages . Arthropods form the phylum EUARTHROPODA, which includes insects , arachnids , myriapods , and crustaceans . The term ARTHROPODA as originally proposed refers to a proposed grouping of Euarthropods and the phylum Onychophora . Arthropods are characterized by their jointed limbs and cuticle made of chitin , often mineralised with calcium carbonate . The arthropod body plan consists of segments, each with a pair of appendages. The rigid cuticle inhibits growth, so arthropods replace it periodically by moulting . Their versatility has enabled them to become the most species-rich members of all ecological guilds in most environments
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Chelicerata
The subphylum CHELICERATA (/kəˌlɪsəˈreɪtə/ or /kəˌlɪsəˈrɑːtə/ ; New Latin, from French chélicère, from Greek khēlē "claw, chela " and kéras "horn") constitutes one of the major subdivisions of the phylum Arthropoda
Arthropoda
. It contains the horseshoe crabs , sea spiders , and arachnids (including scorpions and spiders ). The chelicerata originated as marine animals, possibly in the Cambrian
Cambrian
period, but the first confirmed chelicerate fossils , eurypterids , date from 445 million years ago in the Late Ordovician period. The surviving marine species include the four species of xiphosurans (horseshoe crabs), and possibly the 1,300 species of pycnogonids (sea spiders), if the latter are indeed chelicerates. On the other hand, there are over 77,000 well-identified species of air-breathing chelicerates, and there may be about 500,000 unidentified species
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Spider
Mesothelae Opisthothelae See Spider taxonomy . DIVERSITY 113 families, c. 46,000 species SPIDERS (order ARANEAE) are air-breathing arthropods that have eight legs and chelicerae with fangs that inject venom . They are the largest order of arachnids and rank seventh in total species diversity among all other orders of organisms. Spiders are found worldwide on every continent except for Antarctica
Antarctica
, and have become established in nearly every habitat with the exceptions of air and sea colonization. As of November 2015 , at least 45,700 spider species , and 113 families have been recorded by taxonomists . However, there has been dissension within the scientific community as to how all these families should be classified, as evidenced by the over 20 different classifications that have been proposed since 1900
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Arachnid
ARACHNIDS are a class (ARACHNIDA) of joint-legged invertebrate animals (arthropods ), in the subphylum Chelicerata . All arachnids have eight legs , although the front pair of legs in some species has converted to a sensory function, while in other species, different appendages can grow large enough to take on the appearance of extra pairs of legs. The term is derived from the Greek word ἀράχνη (aráchnē), meaning "spider". Spiders are the largest order in the class, which also includes scorpions , ticks , mites , harvestmen , and solifuges . Almost all extant arachnids are terrestrial , living mainly on land. However, some inhabit freshwater environments and, with the exception of the pelagic zone , marine environments as well. They comprise over 100,000 named species
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Wikispecies
WIKISPECIES is a wiki -based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation . Its aim is to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species ; the project is directed at scientists, rather than at the general public. Jimmy Wales
Jimmy Wales
stated that editors are not required to fax in their degrees, but that submissions will have to pass muster with a technical audience. Wikispecies
Wikispecies
is available under the GNU Free Documentation License
GNU Free Documentation License
and CC BY-SA 3.0 . Started in September 2004, with biologists across the world invited to contribute, the project had grown a framework encompassing the Linnaean taxonomy with links to articles on individual species by April 2005
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