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MPQ-64 Sentinel
The AN/MPQ-64 Sentinel
AN/MPQ-64 Sentinel
is a 3D radar
3D radar
used to alert and queue Short Range Air Defense (SHORAD) weapons to the locations of hostile targets approaching their front line forces. The Sentinel radar is deployed with forward area air defense units of the U.S. Army. It is an X-band range-gated, pulse-Doppler radar system. The antenna uses phase-frequency electronic scanning technology, forming sharp 3D pencil beams covering large surveillance and track volume. The radar automatically acquires, tracks, classifies, identifies and reports targets, including cruise missiles, unmanned aerial vehicles, and both rotary- and fixed-wing aircraft. It uses a high scan rate (30 RPM) and operates at a range of 40 km (25 mi). The radar is designed with high resistance to electronic countermeasures (ECM)
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Azimuth
An azimuth (/ˈæzɪməθ/ ( listen)) (from the pl. form of the Arabic noun "السَّمْت" as-samt, meaning "the direction") is an angular measurement in a spherical coordinate system. The vector from an observer (origin) to a point of interest is projected perpendicularly onto a reference plane; the angle between the projected vector and a reference vector on the reference plane is called the azimuth. An example of azimuth is the angular direction of a star in the sky. The star is the point of interest, the reference plane is the local horizontal area (e.g. a circular area 5 km in radius around an observer at sea level), and the reference vector points north. The azimuth is the angle between the north vector and the star's vector on the horizontal plane.[1] Azimuth
Azimuth
is usually measured in degrees (°)
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Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), commonly known as a drone, is an aircraft without a human pilot aboard. UAVs are a component of an unmanned aircraft system (UAS); which include a UAV, a ground-based controller, and a system of communications between the two. The flight of UAVs may operate with various degrees of autonomy: either under remote control by a human operator or autonomously by onboard computers.[1] Compared to manned aircraft, UAVs were originally used for missions too "dull, dirty or dangerous"[2] for humans. While they originated mostly in military applications, their use is rapidly expanding to commercial, scientific, recreational, agricultural, and other applications,[3] such as policing, peacekeeping,[4] and surveillance, product deliveries, aerial photography, agriculture, smuggling,[5] and drone racing
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3D Radar
3D radar
3D radar
provides for radar coverage in three dimensions; unlike the more common 2D radar which provides range and bearing, the 3D radar also provides elevation. Applications include weather monitoring, air defense, and surveillance. The information provided by 3D radar
3D radar
has long been required, particularly for air defence and interception. Interceptors must be told the altitude to climb to before making an intercept. Before the advent of single unit 3D radars, this was achieved with separate search radars (giving range and azimuth) and separate height finding radars that could examine a target to determine altitude
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Joint Electronics Type Designation System
The Joint Electronics Type Designation System (JETDS), which was previously known as the Joint Army-Navy Nomenclature System (AN System. JAN) and the Joint Communications-Electronics Nomenclature System, is a method developed by the U.S. War Department
U.S. War Department
during World War II for assigning an unclassified designator to electronic equipment
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Fullerton, California
Fullerton is a city located in northern Orange County, California, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 135,161.[6] Fullerton was founded in 1887. It secured the land on behalf of the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway. Historically it was a center of agriculture, notably groves of Valencia oranges and other citrus crops; petroleum extraction; transportation; and manufacturing. It is home to numerous higher educational institutions, particularly California
California
State University, Fullerton and Fullerton College
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Hughes Aircraft
The Hughes Aircraft Company
Hughes Aircraft Company
was a major American aerospace and defense contractor founded in 1932 by Howard Hughes
Howard Hughes
in Glendale, California[1] as a division of Hughes Tool Company
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Wideband
In communications, a system is wideband when the message bandwidth significantly exceeds the coherence bandwidth of the channel. Some communication links have such a high data rate that they are forced to use a wide bandwidth; other links may have relatively low data rates, but deliberately use a wider bandwidth than "necessary" for that data rate in order to gain other advantages; see spread spectrum. A wideband antenna is one with approximately or exactly the same operating characteristics over a very wide Passband. It is distinguished from broadband antennas, where the passband is large, but the antenna gain and/or radiation pattern need not stay the same over the passband. The term Wideband Audio or (also termed HD Voice or Wideband Voice) denotes a telephony using a wideband codec, which uses a greater frequency range of the audio spectrum than conventional voiceband telephone calls, resulting in a clearer sound
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Autonomous
In development or moral, political, and bioethical philosophy, autonomy[1] is the capacity to make an informed, un-coerced decision. Autonomous organizations or institutions are independent or self-governing. Autonomy can also be defined from human resource perspective and it means a level of discretion granted to an employee in his or her work.[2] In such cases, autonomy is known to bring some sense of job satisfaction among the employees. Autonomy is a term that is also widely used and in the field of medicine
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Electronic Countermeasures
An electronic countermeasure (ECM) is an electrical or electronic device designed to trick or deceive radar, sonar or other detection systems, like infrared (IR) or lasers. It may be used both offensively and defensively to deny targeting information to an enemy. The system may make many separate targets appear to the enemy, or make the real target appear to disappear or move about randomly. It is used effectively to protect aircraft from guided missiles. Most air forces use ECM to protect their aircraft from attack. It has also been deployed by military ships and recently on some advanced tanks to fool laser/IR guided missiles. It is frequently coupled with stealth advances so that the ECM systems have an easier job. Offensive ECM often takes the form of jamming
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Aircraft
An aircraft is a machine that is able to fly by gaining support from the air. It counters the force of gravity by using either static lift or by using the dynamic lift of an airfoil,[1] or in a few cases the downward thrust from jet engines. Common examples of aircraft include airplanes, helicopters, airships (including blimps), gliders, and hot air balloons.[2] The human activity that surrounds aircraft is called aviation
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SINCGARS
Single Channel Ground and Airborne Radio System (SINCGARS) is a Combat Net Radio (CNR) currently used by U.S. and allied military forces. The radios, which handle voice and data communications, are designed to be reliable, secure, and easily maintained. Vehicle-mount, backpack, airborne, and handheld form factors are available. SINCGARS
SINCGARS
uses 25 kHz channels in the very high frequency (VHF) FM band, from 30.000 to 87.975 megahertz (MHz). It has single-frequency and frequency hopping modes. The frequency-hopping mode hops 111 times a second. The SINCGARS
SINCGARS
family has mostly replaced the Vietnam War-era synthesized single frequency radios ( AN/PRC-77
AN/PRC-77
and AN/VRC-12), although it can work with them
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Cruise Missile
A cruise missile is a guided missile used against terrestrial targets that remains in the atmosphere and flies the major portion of its flight path at approximately constant speed. Cruise missiles are designed to deliver a large warhead over long distances with high precision
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Passive Electronically Scanned Array
A passive electronically scanned array (PESA), also known as passive phased array, is a phased array antenna, that is an antenna in which the beam of radio waves can be electronically steered to point in different directions, in which all the antenna elements are connected to a single transmitter (such as a magnetron, a klystron or a travelling wave tube) and/or receiver. This contrasts with an active electronically scanned array (AESA) antenna, which has a separate transmitter and/or receiver unit for each antenna element, all controlled by a computer. AESA is a more advanced, sophisticated versatile second-generation version of the original PESA phased array technology. The largest use of phased arrays is in radars. Most phased array radars in the world are PESA. The civilian microwave landing system uses PESA transmit-only arrays. Radar
Radar
systems generally work by connecting an antenna to a powerful radio transmitter to emit a short pulse of signal
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Antenna (radio)
In radio, an antenna is the interface between radio waves propagating through space and electric currents moving in metal conductors, used with a transmitter or receiver.[1] In transmission, a radio transmitter supplies an electric current to the antenna's terminals, and the antenna radiates the energy from the current as electromagnetic waves (radio waves). In reception, an antenna intercepts some of the power of an electromagnetic wave in order to produce an electric current at its terminals, that is applied to a receiver to be amplified. Antennas are essential components of all radio equipment, and are used in radio broadcasting, broadcast television, two-way radio, communications receivers, radar, cell phones, satellite communications and other devices. An antenna is an array of conductors (elements), electrically connected to the receiver or transmitter
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