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Mmap
In computing, mmap(2) is a POSIX-compliant Unix
Unix
system call that maps files or devices into memory. It is a method of memory-mapped file I/O. It naturally implements demand paging, because file contents are not read from disk initially and do not use physical RAM at all. The actual reads from disk are performed in a "lazy" manner, after a specific location is accessed. After the memory is no longer needed, it is important to munmap(2) the pointers to it
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Computing
Computing
Computing
is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computers. Computing
Computing
includes designing, developing and building hardware and software systems; designing a mathematical sequence of steps known as an algorithm; processing, structuring, and managing various kinds of information; doing scientific research on and with computers; making computer systems behave intelligently; and creating and using communications and entertainment media
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Computer Program
A computer program is a structured collection of instruction sequences[1][2] that perform a specific task when executed by a computer. A computer requires programs to function. A computer program is usually written by a computer programmer in a programming language. From the program in its human-readable form of source code, a compiler can derive machine code—a form consisting of instructions that the computer can directly execute. Alternatively, a computer program may be executed with the aid of an interpreter. The evolution of a process is directed by a pattern of rules called a program. People create programs to direct processes. A formal model of some part of a computer program that performs a general and well-defined task is called an algorithm. A collection of computer programs, libraries, and related data are referred to as software
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Bob Fabry
Bob Fabry, while a computer science professor at the University of California, Berkeley, conceived of the idea of obtaining DARPA
DARPA
funding for a radically improved version of AT&T Unix
Unix
and started the Computer Systems Research Group.[1][2][3] See also[edit] Unix
Unix
File
File
SystemReferences[edit]^ Dr. Peter H. Salus (2005-05-05). "Groklaw - The Daemon, the GNU, and the Penguin - Ch. 7". Retrieved 2010-12-04.  ^ Marshall Kirk McKusick
Marshall Kirk McKusick
(1999–2001). Twenty Years of Berkeley Unix : From AT&T-Owned to Freely Redistributable. From the book Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution (PDF). ISBN 1-56592-582-3. Retrieved 2010-12-04.  ^ Andrew Leonard (2000-05-16)
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Posix
The Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX)[1] is a family of standards specified by the IEEE Computer Society
IEEE Computer Society
for maintaining compatibility between operating systems
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Marshall Kirk McKusick
Marshall Kirk McKusick
Marshall Kirk McKusick
(born January 19, 1954) is a computer scientist, known for his extensive work on BSD
BSD
UNIX, from the 1980s to Free BSD
BSD
in the present day. He was president of the USENIX
USENIX
Association from 1990 to 1992 and again from 2002 to 2004, and still serves on the board. He is on the editorial board of ACM Queue Magazine.[1] He is known to friends and colleagues as "Kirk". McKusick received his B.S. in electrical engineering from Cornell University, and 2 M.S. degrees (in 1979 and 1980 respectively) and a Ph.D
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Computer Systems Research Group
The Computer Systems Research Group
Computer Systems Research Group
(CSRG) was a research group at the University of California, Berkeley
University of California, Berkeley
that was dedicated to enhancing AT&T Unix
Unix
operating system and funded by Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.Contents1 History 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksHistory[edit] Professor Bob Fabry of University of California, Berkeley
University of California, Berkeley
acquired a UNIX source license from AT&T in 1974. Berkeley started to modify UNIX and distributed their version of UNIX as BSD
BSD
(Berkeley Software Distribution)
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Data
Data
Data
(/ˈdeɪtə/ DAY-tə, /ˈdætə/ DAT-ə, /ˈdɑːtə/ DAH-tə)[1] is a set of values of qualitative or quantitative variables. Data
Data
and information are often used interchangeably; however, the extent to which a set of data is informative to someone depends on the extent to which it is unexpected by that person
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Thread (computing)
In computer science, a thread of execution is the smallest sequence of programmed instructions that can be managed independently by a scheduler, which is typically a part of the operating system.[1] The implementation of threads and processes differs between operating systems, but in most cases a thread is a component of a process. Multiple threads can exist within one process, executing concurrently and sharing resources such as memory, while different processes do not share these resources. In particular, the threads of a process share its executable code and the values of its variables at any given time.Contents1 Single vs multiprocessor systems 2 History 3 Threads vs
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Pipeline (Unix)
In Unix-like
Unix-like
computer operating systems, a pipeline is a sequence of processes chained together by their standard streams, so that the output of each process (stdout) feeds directly as input (stdin) to the next one. The concept of pipelines was championed by Douglas McIlroy
Douglas McIlroy
at Unix's ancestral home of Bell Labs, during the development of Unix, shaping its toolbox philosophy.[1][2] It is named by analogy to a physical pipeline. The standard shell syntax for pipelines is to list multiple commands, separated by vertical bars ("pipes" in common Unix
Unix
verbiage)
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Paging
In computer operating systems, paging is a memory management scheme by which a computer stores and retrieves data from secondary storage[a] for use in main memory.[1] In this scheme, the operating system retrieves data from secondary storage in same-size blocks called pages
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Semaphore (programming)
In computer science, a semaphore is a variable or abstract data type used to control access to a common resource by multiple processes in a concurrent system such as a multitasking operating system. A trivial semaphore is a plain variable that is changed (for example, incremented or decremented, or toggled) depending on programmer-defined conditions. A useful way to think of a semaphore as used in the real-world systems is as a record of how many units of a particular resource are available, coupled with operations to adjust that record safely (i.e. to avoid race conditions) as units are required or become free, and, if necessary, wait until a unit of the resource becomes available. Semaphores are a useful tool in the prevention of race conditions; however, their use is by no means a guarantee that a program is free from these problems
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Communications Protocol
In telecommunication, a communication protocol is a system of rules that allow two or more entities of a communications system to transmit information via any kind of variation of a physical quantity. The protocol defines the rules syntax, semantics and synchronization of communication and possible error recovery methods. Protocols may be implemented by hardware, software, or a combination of both.[1] Communicating systems use well-defined formats (protocol) for exchanging various messages. Each message has an exact meaning intended to elicit a response from a range of possible responses pre-determined for that particular situation. The specified behavior is typically independent of how it is to be implemented. Communication protocols have to be agreed upon by the parties involved.[2] To reach agreement, a protocol may be developed into a technical standard
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Technical Standard
A technical standard is an established norm or requirement in regard to technical systems. It is usually a formal document that establishes uniform engineering or technical criteria, methods, processes and practices. In contrast, a custom, convention, company product, corporate standard, and so forth that becomes generally accepted and dominant is often called a de facto standard. A technical standard may be developed privately or unilaterally, for example by a corporation, regulatory body, military, etc. Standards can also be developed by groups such as trade unions, and trade associations. Standards organizations
Standards organizations
often have more diverse input and usually develop voluntary standards: these might become mandatory if adopted by a government (i.e
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Common Object Request Broker Architecture
The Common Object Request Broker Architecture
Common Object Request Broker Architecture
(CORBA) is a standard defined by the Object Management Group
Object Management Group
(OMG) designed to facilitate the communication of systems that are deployed on diverse platforms. CORBA enables collaboration between systems on different operating systems, programming languages, and computing hardware. CORBA uses an object-oriented model although the systems that use the CORBA do not have to be object-oriented
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Data Distribution Service
The Data Distribution Service
Data Distribution Service
for real-time systems (DDS) is an Object Management Group (OMG) machine-to-machine (sometimes called middleware) standard that aims to enable scalable, real-time, dependable, high-performance and interoperable data exchanges using a publish–subscribe pattern. DDS addresses the needs of applications like financial trading, air-traffic control, smart grid management, and other big data applications. The standard is used in applications such as smartphone operating systems,[1] transportation systems and vehicles,[2] software-defined radio, and by healthcare providers
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