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M. H. M. Ashraff
Mohammed Hussain Mohammed Ashraff (Tamil: முகம்மது ஹுசைன் முகம்மது அஷ்ரப்; 23 October 1948 – 16 September 2000 ) was a Sri Lankan lawyer, politician, government minister and founder/leader of the Sri Lanka Muslim Congress.Contents1 Early life and family 2 Career2.1 Law 2.2 Writings 2.3 Politics 2.4 Death3 Electoral history 4 ReferencesEarly life and family[edit] Ashraff was born on 23 October 1948 in Sammanthurai
Sammanthurai
in south-eastern Ceylon.[1][2] He was the son of Mohammed Meera Lebbe Hus
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The Honourable
The prefix The Honourable or The Honorable (abbreviated to The Hon., Hon. or formerly The Hon'ble—the latter term is still used in South Asia) is a style that is used before the names of certain classes of people. It is considered to be an honorific styling, and it is only used for living people. American protocol expert Robert Hickey says, "The courtesy title The Honorable is used when addressing or listing the name of a living person. When the name of a deceased person is listed it is just (Full Name) + Office Held."[1] The 2016 Bloomsbury guide to titles and forms of address states that the title 'honourable' in English speaking countries is "held for life or during tenure of office."[2] The New York Times Manual of Style and Usage by Allan M. Siegal (1999), p
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Sri Lankan Civil War
Sri Lankan government
Sri Lankan government
victoryRebel group Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam
Tamil Eelam
militarily defeated Sri Lankan government
Sri Lankan government
reestablishes control over entire islandTerritorial changes Government regains total control of former LTTE-controlled areas in the North and East of the country.Belligerents Sri Lanka Indian Peace Keeping Force (1987–1990) Liberation Tigers of Tamil EelamCommanders and leaders J. R. Jayawardene
J. R. Jayawardene
(1983–1989) Ranasinghe Premadasa † (1989–1993) D. B. Wijetunga (1993–1994) Chandrika Kumaratunga
Chandrika Kumaratunga
(1994–2005) Mahinda Rajapaksa
Mahinda Rajapaksa
(2005–2009) R. Venkataraman
R

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Illankai Tamil Arasu Kachchi
Illankai Tamil Arasu Kachchi
Illankai Tamil Arasu Kachchi
(ITAK) (Tamil: இலங்கைத் தமிழரசுக் கட்சி, Sinhalese: ඉලංගෙයි තමිළ් අරසු කච්චි) is a Sri Lankan political party which represents the Sri Lankan Tamil ethnic minority in the country. It was originally formed in 1949 as breakaway faction of the All Ceylon Tamil Congress
All Ceylon Tamil Congress
(ACTC). In 1972 ITAK merged with the ACTC and Ceylon Workers' Congress
Ceylon Workers' Congress
(CWC) to form the Tamil United Front, which later changed its name to Tamil United Liberation Front
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Sri Lanka Police Service
The Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Police
Police
(Sinhala: ශ්‍රී ලංකා පොලීසිය Shrī Lanka Polīsiya; Tamil: இலங்கை காவல் Ilaṅkai Kāval) is the civilian national police force of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka. The police force has a manpower of approximately 77,000, and is responsible for enforcing criminal- and traffic law, enhancing public safety, maintaining order and keeping the peace throughout Sri Lanka. The professional head of the police is the Inspector
Inspector
General of Police
Police
who reports to the Minister of Law and Order as well as the National Police
Police
Commission
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Tamil United Liberation Front
The Tamil United Liberation Front (Tamil: தமிழர் ஐக்கிய விடுதலை முன்னணி, Sinhalese: ද්‍රවිඩ එක්සත් විමුක්ති පෙරමුණ) is a political party in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
which seeks independence for the Tamil-populated areas of Sri Lanka.Contents1 Formation 2 1977 Parliamentary General Election 3 1989 Parliamentary General Election 4 1994 Parliamentary General Election 5 2000 Parliamentary General Election 6 2001 Parliamentary General Election 7 Split 8 2004 Parliamentary General Election 9 2010 Parliamentary General Election 10 References 11 External linksFormation[edit] On May 4, 1972 several Tamil political groups, including the All Ceylon Tamil Congress, formed the Tamil United Front (TUF). The Federal Party joined the TUF in 1976
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Vaddukoddai Resolution
Vaddukoddai
Vaddukoddai
Resolution was adopted on 14 May 1976 in Pannakam
Pannakam
near Vaddukoddai, Northern Province, Sri Lanka
Northern Province, Sri Lanka
it called for the creation of an independent Tamil Eelam
Tamil Eelam
by the Tamil United Liberation Front under the leadership of S. J. V. Chelvanayakam
S. J. V. Chelvanayakam
and it fought Sri Lankan parliamentary election, 1977 on its demand for Tamil Eelam
Tamil Eelam
and won an overwhelming mandate in the Tamil areas and become the main opposition party in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
the only time a minority party has done so
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Tamil Eelam
Tamil Eelam
Eelam
(Tamil: தமிழீழம் tamiḻ īḻam, generally rendered outside Tamil-speaking areas as தமிழ் ஈழம்) is a proposed independent state that Tamils in Sri Lanka, India
India
and the Sri Lankan Tamil diaspora
Sri Lankan Tamil diaspora
aspire to create in the north and east of Sri Lanka
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Sri Lankan Parliamentary Election, 1977
Sirimavo Bandaranaike Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Freedom PartyPrime Minister-designate Junius Richard Jayewardene United National PartyThe 1977 Sri Lankan election heralded the beginning of a new period of Sri Lanka's history - a period of unprecedented violence.[citation needed]Contents1 Background 2 Results 3 Electorate Results3.1 Western Province3.1.1 Colombo District 3.1.2 Gampaha District 3.1.3 Kalutara District3.2 Central Province3.2.1 Matale District 3.2.2 Kandy District 3.2.3 Nuwaraeliya District3.3 Southern Province3.3.1 G
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A. Amirthalingam
Appapillai Amirthalingam (Tamil: அப்பாப்பிள்ளை அமிர்தலிங்கம், 26 August 1927 – 13 July 1989) was a leading Sri Lankan Tamil
Sri Lankan Tamil
politician, Member of Parliament and Leader of the Opposition. Amirthalingam was assassinated by the Tamil Tigers.[1][2]Contents1 Early life 2 Political career 3 Assassination 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksEarly life[edit] Amirthalingam was born 26 August 1927 in Pannagam
Pannagam
near Vaddukoddai
Vaddukoddai
in northern province of Ceylon. He was the son of S. Appapillai, a retired station master, and Valliammai. He had three brothers (Sockalingam, Vasu Thevalingam and Thigamparalingam). He was educated at Meihandan Tamil School, Pannakam and Victoria College, Chulipuram. He later studied at Ceylon
Ceylon
University College
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Sri Lanka Freedom Party
The Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Freedom Party (Sinhalese: ශ්‍රී ලංකා නිදහස් පක්ෂය, translit. Śrī Laṁkā Nidahas Pakṣaya; Tamil: இலங்கை சுதந்திரக் கட்சி, translit. Ilaṅkai Cutantirak Kaṭci) is one of the major political parties in Sri Lanka. It was founded by S.W.R.D Bandaranaike in 1951 [1] and, since then, has been one of the two largest parties in the Sri Lankan political arena. It first came to power in 1956 and since then has been the predominant party in government on a number of occasions.[2] The party is generally considered as having a democratic socialist or progressive economic agenda and is often associated with nationalist Sinhala parties
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Kattankudy
Kattankudy
Kattankudy
(Tamil: காத்தான்குடி, Sinhalese: කාත්තාන්කුඩි, (Arabic: مدينة قَحْطَان, Madheenathul Qahthan) also transliterated as "Kathankudy" is a township in Sri Lanka, located along its eastern coastline, about 339 km (211 mi) away from Capital - Colombo. The township has an estimated population over 50,000 Muslims.[citation needed] Kattankudy
Kattankudy
is one of the many Muslim dominated towns in Sri Lanka. It is said that Kattankudy
Kattankudy
is the most densely populated city in Sri Lanka with nearly 50,000 residents, calculated at 6,726 inhabitants per square kilometer in 2012
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Black July
Black July
Black July
(Tamil: கறுப்பு யூலை, translit. Kaṟuppu Yūlai; Sinhalese: කළු ජූලිය Kalu Juliya) is the common name used to refer to the anti-Tamil pogrom[3] and riots in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
during July 1983. The riots began as a "response" to a deadly ambush on 23 July 1983 by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, a Tamil militant group, that killed 13 Sri Lanka Army soldiers. Beginning in the capital Colombo
Colombo
on the night of 24 July 1983, anti-Tamil pogroms spread to other parts of the country. Over seven days, mobs, mainly Sinhalese, attacked Tamil targets, burning, looting, and killing
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Sri Lankan Tamil Militant Groups
Sri Lankan Tamil
Sri Lankan Tamil
militant groups rose to prominence in the 1970s to fight the state of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
in order to create an independent Tamil Eelam
Eelam
in the north of Sri Lanka. They rose in response to the perception among minority Sri Lankan Tamils
Sri Lankan Tamils
that the state was preferring the majority Sinhalese for educational opportunities and government jobs. By the end of 1987, the militants had fought not only the Sri Lankan security forces
Sri Lankan security forces
but also the Indian Peace Keeping Force. They also fought among each other briefly, with the main Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam
Tamil Eelam
(LTTE) rebel group dominating the others. The militants represented inter-generational tensions, as well as the caste and ideological differences
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Sri Lankan Tamils
Sri Lankan Tamils
Tamils
(Tamil: இலங்கை தமிழர், ilankai tamiḻar ? also Tamil: ஈழத் தமிழர், īḻat tamiḻar ?) or Ceylon Tamils, also known as Eelam
Eelam
Tamils[16] in Tamil, are members of the Tamil ethnic group native to the South Asian island state of Sri Lanka. According to anthropological and archaeological evidence, Sri Lankan Tamils
Tamils
have a very long history in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and have lived on the island since at least around the 2nd century BC.[17][18][a] Most modern Sri Lankan Tamils
Tamils
claim descent from residents of Jaffna Kingdom, a former kingdom in the north of the island and Vannimai
Vannimai
chieftaincies from the east
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Sri Lankan Government
The Government of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
(GoSL) (Sinhala: ශ්‍රී ලංකා රජය Śrī Laṃkā Rajaya) is a semi-presidential system determined by the Sri Lankan Constitution. The GoSL administers Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
from both its commercial capital of Colombo
Colombo
and the administrative capital of Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte.[1]Presidential Secretariat, Colombo
Colombo
1Contents1 Constitution 2 Executive branch 3 Elections 4 Legislative branch 5 Judicial Branch 6 References 7 External linksConstitution[edit] Main article: Constitution
Constitution
of Sri Lanka The Constitution of Sri Lanka
Constitution of Sri Lanka
has been the constitution of the island nation of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
since its original promulgation by the National State Assembly on 7 September 1978
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