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M.C. Escher
Maurits Cornelis Escher (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈmʌurɪts kɔrˈneːlɪs ˈɛsxər]; 17 June 1898 – 27 March 1972), or commonly M. C. Escher, was a Dutch graphic artist who made mathematically inspired woodcuts, lithographs, and mezzotints. His work features mathematical objects and operations including impossible objects, explorations of infinity, reflection, symmetry, perspective, truncated and stellated polyhedra, hyperbolic geometry, and tessellations. Although Escher believed he had no mathematical ability, he interacted with the mathematicians George Pólya, Roger Penrose, Harold Coxeter and crystallographer Friedrich Haag, and conducted his own research into tessellation. Early in his career, he drew inspiration from nature, making studies of insects, landscapes, and plants such as lichens, all of which he used as details in his artworks
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Leeuwarden
Leeuwarden
Leeuwarden
(Dutch pronunciation: [ˈleːʋɑrdə(n)] ( listen), West Frisian: Ljouwert [ˈʎɔːw(ə)t] ( listen)), Stadsfries: Liwwadden) is a city and municipality in Friesland
Friesland
in the Netherlands. It is the provincial capital of the States of Friesland. The municipality has a population of 122,293. The region has been continuously inhabited since the 10th century. It came to be known as Leeuwarden
Leeuwarden
in the early 9th century AD and was granted city privileges in 1435. It is the main economic hub of Friesland, situated in a green and water-rich environment. Leeuwarden is a former royal residence and has a historic city center, many historically relevant buildings, and a large shopping center with squares and restaurants
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Mathematical Structure
In mathematics, a structure on a set is an additional mathematical object that, in some manner, attaches (or relates) to that set to endow it with some additional meaning or significance. A partial list of possible structures are measures, algebraic structures (groups, fields, etc.), topologies, metric structures (geometries), orders, events, equivalence relations, differential structures, and categories. Sometimes, a set is endowed with more than one structure simultaneously; this enables mathematicians to study it more richly. For example, an ordering imposes a rigid form, shape, or topology on the set. As another example, if a set has both a topology and is a group, and these two structures are related in a certain way, the set becomes a topological group. Mappings between sets which preserve structures (so that structures in the source or domain are mapped to equivalent structures in the destination or codomain) are of special interest in many fields of mathematics
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Roger Penrose
Sir
Sir
Roger Penrose
Roger Penrose
OM FRS (born 8 August 1931) is an English mathematical physicist, mathematician and philosopher of science. He is Emeritus Rouse Ball Professor of Mathematics
Mathematics
in the University of Oxford and Emeritus Fellow of Wadham College, Oxford. Penrose is known for his work in mathematical physics, in particular for his contributions to general relativity and cosmology
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Crystallography
Crystallography
Crystallography
is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in crystalline solids (see crystal structure). The word "crystallography" derives from the Greek words crystallon "cold drop, frozen drop", with its meaning extending to all solids with some degree of transparency, and graphein "to write". In July 2012, the United Nations
United Nations
recognised the importance of the science of crystallography by proclaiming that 2014 would be the International Year of Crystallography.[1] X-ray crystallography
X-ray crystallography
is used to determine the structure of large biomolecules such as proteins. Before the development of X-ray
X-ray
diffraction crystallography (see below), the study of crystals was based on physical measurements of their geometry
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Friedrich Haag
Friedrich Haag (20 August 1856 – 8 December 1941) was a pioneering German crystallographer.[1][2] An article written by Haag in the de:Zeitschrift für Kristallographie (a German crystallography journal) was used by M. C. Escher
M. C. Escher
in his study of tessellation.[3][4] References[edit]^ H. Wondratschek Topics, The Rigaku Journal, Volume 4, Issue 1/2, 1987, p. 33 ^ Doris Schattschneider Tiling the plane with congruent pentagons, Math. Mag., 1978, Volume 51, pp. 29–44 ^ Haag Die regelmäßigen Planteilungen und Punktsysteme, Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Volume 58, 1923, pp. 478–489[permanent dead link] ^ Doris Schattschneider The Mathematical Side of M. C. Escher, Notices AMS, June/July 2010, p. 707External links[edit]de: Friedrich Haag (Kristallograph) (on German)This article about a German chemist is a stub
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Nature
Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, or material world or universe. "Nature" can refer to the phenomena of the physical world, and also to life in general. The study of nature is a large, if not the only, part of science
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Insect
See text.SynonymsEctognatha EntomidaInsects or Insecta (from Latin
Latin
insectum) are by far the largest group of hexapod invertebrates within the arthropod phylum. Definitions and circumscriptions vary; usually, insects comprise a class within the Phylum
Phylum
Arthropoda. As used here, the term is synonymous with Ectognatha. Insects have a chitinous exoskeleton, a three-part body (head, thorax and abdomen), three pairs of jointed legs, compound eyes and one pair of antennae
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Landscape
A landscape is the visible features of an area of land, its landforms and how they integrate with natural or man-made features.[1]A prairie: Badlands National Park, South Dakota, USA. Tropical
Tropical
rainforest, Fatu Hiva Island, Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia. Tundra
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Plant
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. They form the clade Viridiplantae (Latin for "green plants") that includes the flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms, ferns, clubmosses, hornworts, liverworts, mosses and the green algae, and excludes the red and brown algae. Historically, plants were treated as one of two kingdoms including all living things that were not animals, and all algae and fungi were treated as plants. However, all current definitions of Plantae exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria). Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts that are derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria. Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color
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Lichen
A lichen is a composite organism that arises from algae or cyanobacteria living among filaments of multiple fungi[1] in a symbiotic relationship.[2][3][4] The combined lichen has properties different from those of its component organisms. Lichens
Lichens
come in many colours, sizes, and forms. The properties are sometimes plant-like, but lichens are not plants
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Mosque–Cathedral Of Córdoba
The Mosque– Cathedral
Cathedral
of Córdoba[1][2] (Spanish: Mezquita-Catedral de Córdoba), also known as the Great Mosque
Mosque
of Córdoba[3][2][4] (Spanish: Mezquita de
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Martin Gardner
Martin Gardner
Martin Gardner
(October 21, 1914 – May 22, 2010) was an American popular mathematics and popular science writer, with interests also encompassing scientific skepticism, micromagic, philosophy, religion, and literature—especially the writings of Lewis Carroll, L. Frank Baum, and G. K. Chesterton.[4][5] He was considered a leading authority on Lewis Carroll
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Hilversum
Hilversum
Hilversum
(Dutch pronunciation: [ˈɦɪlvərsɵm] ( listen)) is a city and municipality in the province of North Holland, Netherlands. Located in the heart of the Gooi, it is the largest urban centre in that area. It is surrounded by heathland, woods, meadows, lakes, and smaller towns. Hilversum
Hilversum
is part of the Randstad, one of the largest conurbations in Europe.Contents1 Town1.1 Broadcasting2 History 3 Culture 4 Transport 5 Local government 6 Notable residents 7 References 8 External linksTown[edit] Hilversum
Hilversum
lies 24 km (15 mi) south-east of Amsterdam
Amsterdam
and 15 km (9.3 mi) north of Utrecht
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Mathematical Games Column
Over a period of 24 years (January 1957 – December 1980), Martin Gardner wrote 288 consecutive "Mathematical Games" columns for Scientific American
Scientific American
magazine. Subsequently, he alternated with other authors, producing 9 more columns under that title (February 1981 – June 1986), for a total of 297
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Scientific American
Scientific American
Scientific American
(informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine. Many famous scientists, including Albert Einstein, have contributed articles in the past 170 years. It is the oldest continuously published monthly magazine in the United States (though it only became monthly in 1921).Contents1 History 2 International editions 3 First issue 4 Editors 5 Special
Special
issues 6 Scientific American
Scientific American
50 award 7 Website 8 Columns 9 Television 10 Books 11 Scientific and political debate 12 Awards 13 Top 10 Science Stories of the Year 14 Controversy 15 See also 16 References 17 External linksHistory[edit] Scientific American
Scientific American
was founded by inventor and publisher Rufus M. Porter in 1845[2] as a four-page weekly newspaper. Throughout its early years, much emphasis was placed on reports of what was going on at the U.S
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