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Lyre
The lyre (Greek: λύρα, lýra) is a string instrument known for its use in Greek classical antiquity and later periods. The lyre is similar in appearance to a small harp but with distinct differences. The word comes via Latin
Latin
from the Greek;[1] the earliest reference to the word is the Mycenaean Greek
Mycenaean Greek
ru-ra-ta-e, meaning "lyrists" and written in the Linear B
Linear B
script.[2] The lyres of Ur, excavated in ancient Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), date to 2500 BC.[3] The earliest picture of a lyre with seven strings appears in the famous sarcophagus of Hagia Triada
Hagia Triada
(a Minoan settlement in Crete)
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Turtle
Cryptodira Pleurodira †Meiolaniidae and see textDiversity14 extant families with 356 speciesblue: sea turtles, black: land turtlesThis article's lead section may not adequately summarize its contents. To comply with's lead section guidelines, please consider modifying the lead to provide an accessible overview of the article's key points in such a way that it can stand on its own as a concise version of the article. (discuss). (January 2018)Turtles are reptiles of the order Testudines
Testudines
(or Chelonii[3]) characterized by a special bony or cartilaginous shell developed from their ribs and acting as a shield.[4] "Turtle" may refer to the order as a whole (American English) or to fresh-water and sea-dwelling testudines (British English).[5] The order Testudines
Testudines
includes both extant (living) and extinct species
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Zither
Zither
Zither
(/ˈzɪðər, ˈzɪθ-/;[1] German: [ˈtsɪtɐ]) is a class of stringed instruments. The word Zither
Zither
is a German rendering of the Greek word cithara, from which the modern word "guitar" also derives. Historically, it has been applied to any instrument of the cittern family, or an instrument consisting of many strings stretched across a thin, flat body – similar to a psaltery. This article describes the second variety.[1][2][3] Zithers are played by strumming or plucking the strings, either with the fingers (sometimes using an accessory called a plectrum or pick), sounding the strings with a bow, or, with varieties of the instrument like the santur or cimbalom, by beating the strings with specially shaped hammers. Like a guitar or lute, a zither's body serves as a resonating chamber (sound box), but, unlike guitars and lutes, a zither lacks a distinctly separate neck assembly
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Mycenaean Greece
Mycenaean Greece
Greece
(or Mycenaean civilization) was the last phase of the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
in Ancient Greece, spanning the period from approximately 1600–1100 BC. It represents the first advanced civilization in mainland Greece, with its palatial states, urban organization, works of art and writing system.[1] Among the centers of power that emerged, the most notable were those of Pylos, Tiryns, Midea in the Peloponnese, Orchomenos, Thebes, Athens
Athens
in Central Greece
Greece
and Iolcos in Thessaly. The most prominent site was Mycenae, in Argolid, after which the culture of this era is named
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Crete
Crete
Crete
(Greek: Κρήτη, Kríti ['kriti]; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica. Crete and a number of surrounding islands and islets constitute the region of Crete
Crete
(Greek: Περιφέρεια Κρήτης), one of the 13 top-level administrative units of Greece. The capital and the largest city is Heraklion. As of 2011[update], the region had a population of 623,065. Crete
Crete
forms a significant part of the economy and cultural heritage of Greece, while retaining its own local cultural traits (such as its own poetry and music). It was once the centre of the Minoan civilisation (c. 2700–1420 BC), which is the earliest known civilisation in Europe
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Minoan Civilization
The Minoan civilization
Minoan civilization
was an Aegean Bronze Age
Bronze Age
civilization on the island of Crete
Crete
and other Aegean islands
Aegean islands
which flourished from about 2600 to 1100 BC. It preceded the Mycenaean civilization of Ancient Greece.[1] The civilization was rediscovered at the beginning of the 20th century through the work of British archaeologist Arthur Evans. It has been described as the earliest of its kind in Europe,[2] with historian Will Durant
Will Durant
calling the Minoans "the first link in the European chain".[3] The term "Minoan", which refers to the mythical King Minos, originally described in the pottery of the period. Minos
Minos
was associated in Greek mythology with the labyrinth and the Minotaur, which Evans identified with the site at Knossos
Knossos
(the largest Minoan site)
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Europe
Europe
Europe
is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe
Europe
is most commonly considered as separated from Asia
Asia
by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits.[5] Though the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has moved since its first conception in classical antiquity
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Middle East
The Middle East[note 1] is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey
Turkey
(both Asian and European), and Egypt
Egypt
(which is mostly in North Africa). The corresponding adjective is Middle Eastern and the derived noun is Middle Easterner. The term has come into wider usage as a replacement of the term Near East
Near East
(as opposed to the Far East) beginning in the early 20th century. Arabs, Turks, Persians, Kurds, and Azeris (excluding Azerbaijan) constitute the largest ethnic groups in the region by population.[2] Minorities of the Middle East
Middle East
include Jews, Baloch, Greeks, Assyrians, and other Arameans, Berbers, Circassians
Circassians
(including Kabardians), Copts, Druze, Lurs, Mandaeans, Samaritans, Shabaks, Tats, and Zazas. In the Middle East, there is also a Romani community
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Linear B
Linear B
Linear B
is a syllabic script that was used for writing Mycenaean Greek, the earliest attested form of Greek. The script predates the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
by several centuries. The oldest Mycenaean writing dates to about 1450 BC.[1] It is descended from the older Linear A, an undeciphered earlier script used for writing the Minoan language, as is the later Cypriot syllabary, which also recorded Greek. Linear B, found mainly in the palace archives at Knossos, Cydonia,[2] Pylos, Thebes and Mycenae,[3] disappeared with the fall of Mycenaean civilization during the Late Bronze Age
Late Bronze Age
collapse. The succeeding period, known as the Greek Dark Ages, provides no evidence of the use of writing
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Mycenaean Greek
Mycenaean Greek
Mycenaean Greek
is the most ancient attested form of the Greek language, on the Greek mainland, Crete
Crete
and Cyprus
Cyprus
in Mycenaean Greece (16th to 12th centuries BC), before the hypothesised Dorian invasion, often cited as the terminus post quem for the coming of the Greek language to Greece. The language is preserved in inscriptions in Linear B, a script first attested on Crete
Crete
before the 14th century. Most inscriptions are on clay tablets found in Knossos, in central Crete, as well as in Pylos, in the southwest of the Peloponnese
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Ancient Greek Language
The Ancient Greek language
Greek language
includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece
Greece
and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BC), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BC), and Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
(Koine Greek, 3rd century BC to the 4th century AD). It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek and succeeded by medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek
Attic Greek
and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek
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Latin
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Classical Antiquity
Classical antiquity
Classical antiquity
(also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world. It is the period in which Greek and Roman society flourished and wielded great influence throughout Europe, North Africa
North Africa
and Western Asia. Conventionally, it is taken to begin with the earliest-recorded Epic Greek poetry of Homer
Homer
(8th–7th century BC), and continues through the emergence of Christianity
Christianity
and the decline of the Roman Empire (5th century AD)
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Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece
Greece
was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages
Greek Dark Ages
of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (c. 600 AD). Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and the Byzantine
Byzantine
era.[1] Roughly three centuries after the Late Bronze Age collapse
Late Bronze Age collapse
of Mycenaean Greece, Greek urban poleis began to form in the 8th century BC, ushering in the period of Archaic Greece
Archaic Greece
and colonization of the Mediterranean Basin. This was followed by the period of Classical Greece, an era that began with the Greco-Persian Wars, lasting from the 5th to 4th centuries BC
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Greek Language
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά [eliniˈka], elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα [eliniˈci ˈɣlosa] ( listen), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean
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Aegean Sea
The Aegean Sea
Sea
(/ɪˈdʒiːən/; Greek: Αιγαίο Πέλαγος [eˈʝeo ˈpelaɣos] ( listen); Turkish: Ege Denizi Turkish pronunciation: [eɟe denizi])[stress?] is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece
Greece
and Turkey. In the north, the Aegean is connected to the Marmara Sea
Sea
and Black Sea
Sea
by the Dardanelles
Dardanelles
and Bosphorus
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