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Lyre
The LYRE (Greek : λύρα, lýra) is a string instrument known for its use in Greek classical antiquity and later periods. The lyre is similar in appearance to a small harp but with distinct differences. The word comes via Latin
Latin
from the Greek ; the earliest reference to the word is the Mycenaean Greek ru-ra-ta-e, meaning "lyrists" and written in the Linear B
Linear B
script. The lyres of Ur , excavated in ancient Mesopotamia (modern Iraq
Iraq
), date to 2500 BC. The earliest picture of a lyre with seven strings appears in the famous sarcophagus of Hagia Triada (a Minoan settlement in Crete
Crete
). The sarcophagus was used during the Mycenaean occupation of Crete
Crete
(1400 BC). The recitations of the Ancient Greeks were accompanied by lyre playing
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Mycenaean Greek
MYCENAEAN GREEK is the most ancient attested form of the Greek language , on the Greek mainland, Crete
Crete
and Cyprus
Cyprus
in Mycenaean Greece (16th to 12th centuries BCE), before the hypothesised Dorian invasion , often cited as the terminus post quem for the coming of the Greek language to Greece. The language is preserved in inscriptions in Linear B
Linear B
, a script first attested on Crete
Crete
before the 14th century. Most inscriptions are on clay tablets found in Knossos
Knossos
, in central Crete
Crete
, as well as in Pylos
Pylos
, in the southwest of the Peloponnese
Peloponnese
. Other tablets have been found at Mycenae
Mycenae
itself, Tiryns
Tiryns
and Thebes and at Chania
Chania
, in Western Crete
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Linear B
LINEAR B is a syllabic script that was used for writing Mycenaean Greek , the earliest attested form of Greek . The script predates the Greek alphabet by several centuries. The oldest Mycenaean writing dates to about 1450 BC. It is descended from the older Linear A , an undeciphered earlier script used for writing the Minoan language , as is the later Cypriot syllabary , which also recorded Greek. Linear B, found mainly in the palace archives at Knossos
Knossos
, Cydonia , Pylos
Pylos
, Thebes and Mycenae
Mycenae
, disappeared with the fall of Mycenaean civilization during the Late Bronze Age
Late Bronze Age
collapse . The succeeding period, known as the Greek Dark Ages
Greek Dark Ages
, provides no evidence of the use of writing
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Ancient Greek Language
ANCIENT GREEK includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece
Greece
and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BC), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BC), and Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
(3rd century BC to the 6th century AD). It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek . The language of the Hellenistic phase is known as Koine (common). Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek
Medieval Greek
. Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects
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Latin
LATIN (Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium
Latium
, in the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
. Through the power of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages
Romance languages
, such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian
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Ancient Greece
ANCIENT GREECE was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (c. 600 AD). Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages and the Byzantine
Byzantine
era. Roughly three centuries after the Late Bronze Age collapse of Mycenaean Greece , Greek urban poleis began to form in the 8th century BC, ushering in the period of Archaic Greece
Archaic Greece
and colonization of the Mediterranean Basin . This was followed by the period of Classical Greece , an era that began with the Greco-Persian Wars , lasting from the 5th to 4th centuries BC. Due to the conquests by Alexander the Great of Macedonia , Hellenistic civilization flourished from Central Asia to the western end of the Mediterranean Sea
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Classical Antiquity
CLASSICAL ANTIQUITY (also the CLASSICAL ERA, CLASSICAL PERIOD or CLASSICAL AGE) is the long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome
Rome
, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world . It is the period in which Greek and Roman society flourished and wielded great influence throughout Europe
Europe
, North Africa and Southwestern Asia . Conventionally, it is taken to begin with the earliest-recorded Epic Greek poetry of Homer
Homer
(8th–7th century BC), and continues through the emergence of Christianity
Christianity
and the decline of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(5th century AD)
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Aegean Sea
The AEGEAN SEA (/ᵻˈdʒiːən/ ; Greek : Αιγαίο Πέλαγος ( listen ); Turkish : Ege Denizi Turkish pronunciation: ) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas , i.e., between the mainlands of Greece
Greece
and Turkey
Turkey
. In the north, it is connected to the Marmara Sea
Sea
and Black Sea
Sea
by the Dardanelles and Bosphorus . The Aegean Islands are within the sea and some bound it on its southern periphery, including Crete
Crete
and Rhodes
Rhodes

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Middle East
The MIDDLE EAST is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia
Asia
, Turkey
Turkey
(both Asian and European ), and Egypt
Egypt
(which is mostly in North Africa
North Africa
). The corresponding adjective is Middle Eastern and the derived noun is Middle Easterner. The term has come into wider usage as a replacement of the term Near East (as opposed to the Far East ) beginning in the early 20th century. Arabs
Arabs
, Turks , Persians , Kurds
Kurds
, and Azeris (excluding Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
) constitute the largest ethnic groups in the region by population
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Mycenaean Greece
MYCENAEAN GREECE (or MYCENAEAN CIVILIZATION) was the last phase of the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
in Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece
(c. 1600–1100 BC). It represents the first advanced civilization in mainland Greece
Greece
, with its palatial states, urban organization, works of art and writing system. Among the centers of power that emerged, the most notable were those of Pylos
Pylos
, Tiryns
Tiryns
, Midea in the Peloponnese
Peloponnese
, Orchomenos , Thebes , Athens
Athens
in Central Greece
Greece
and Iolcos in Thessaly
Thessaly
. The most prominent site was Mycenae
Mycenae
, in Argolid , to which the culture of this era owes its name
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Strum
In music , STRUMMING is a way of playing a stringed instrument such as a guitar , ukulele , or mandolin . A STRUM or STROKE is a sweeping action where a fingernail or plectrum brushes past several strings in order to set them all into motion and thereby play a chord . A chord is three or more notes sounded simultaneously. Strums are executed by the dominant hand , while the other hand holds down ("frets") notes on the fretboard . Strums are contrasted with plucking , as a means of activating strings into audible vibration. In plucking, only one string is activated at a time. A hand-held pick or plectrum can only be used to pluck one string at a time, but multiple strings can be strummed by one. Plucking multiple strings simultaneously requires a fingerstyle or fingerpick technique
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Crete
CRETE (Greek : Κρήτη, Kríti ; Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands , 88th -largest island in the world and the fifth -largest island in the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
, after Sicily
Sicily
, Sardinia
Sardinia
, Cyprus
Cyprus
, and Corsica
Corsica
. Crete
Crete
and a number of surrounding islands and islets constitute the region of Crete
Crete
(Greek: Περιφέρεια Κρήτης), one of the 13 top-level administrative units of Greece
Greece
. The capital and the largest city is Heraklion
Heraklion
. As of 2011 , the region had a population of 623,065
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Minoan Civilization
arsenical bronze writing , literature sword , chariot ↓ Iron Age
Iron Age
The MINOAN CIVILIZATION was an Aegean Bronze Age
Bronze Age
civilization on the island of Crete
Crete
and other Aegean islands which flourished from about 2600 to 1100 BC. It preceded the Mycenaean civilization of Ancient Greece
Greece
. The civilization was rediscovered at the beginning of the 20th century through the work of British archaeologist Arthur Evans . It has been described as the earliest of its kind in Europe
Europe
, with historian Will Durant calling the Minoans "the first link in the European chain". The term "Minoan", which refers to the mythical King Minos , originally described the pottery of the period
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Europe
EUROPE is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere
Eastern Hemisphere
. It is bordered by the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia
Eurasia
. Since around 1850, Europe
Europe
is most commonly considered as separated from Asia
Asia
by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains , the Ural River , the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits . Though the term "continent" implies physical geography defines it, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has moved since its first conception in classical antiquity
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Greek Language
GREEK ( Modern Greek : ελληνικά , elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα ( listen ), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean . It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary , were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin
Latin
, Cyrillic
Cyrillic
, Armenian , Coptic , Gothic and many other writing systems
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Organology
ORGANOLOGY (from Greek : ὄργανον – organon, "instrument" and λόγος – logos, "study") is the science of musical instruments and their classification. It embraces study of instruments' history, instruments used in different cultures, technical aspects of how instruments produce sound, and musical instrument classification . There is a degree of overlap between organology, ethnomusicology (being subsets of musicology ) and the branch of the acoustics devoted to musical instruments. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Prominent organologists * 2.1 Ethno-organologists * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYA number of ancient cultures left documents detailing the musical instruments used and their role in society; these documents sometimes included a classification system
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