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Lunéville
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. Lunéville
Lunéville
(French pronunciation: ​[lynevil] ; German, obsolete:  Lünstadt (help·info)) is a commune in the Meurthe-et-Moselle
Meurthe-et-Moselle
department in France. It is a subprefecture of the department and lies on the Meurthe River at its confluence with the Vezouze.Contents1 History 2 Treaties 3 Industry 4 Notable people 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit]Église Saint-Jacques in Lunéville, established by Stanislaus I
Stanislaus I
of Poland in 1745. Lunéville
Lunéville
was a renowned resort in the 18th century, known as the capital of Lorraine
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Subprefectures In France
In France, a subprefecture (French: sous-préfecture) is the administrative center of a departmental arrondissement that does not contain the prefecture for its department. The term also applies to the building that houses the administrative headquarters for an arrondissement. The civil servant in charge of a subprefecture is the subprefect, assisted by a general secretary
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Central European Summer Time
Central European Summer Time
European Summer Time
(CEST), sometime referred also as Central European Daylight Time (CEDT), is the standard clock time observed during the period of summer daylight-saving in those European countries which observe Central European Time
Central European Time
(UTC+1) during the other part of the year. It corresponds to UTC+2, which makes it the same as Central Africa Time, South African Standard Time
South African Standard Time
and Kaliningrad Time in Russia.Contents1 Names 2 Period of observation 3 Usage 4 See also 5 ReferencesNames[edit] Other names which have been applied to Central European Summer Time are Middle European Summer Time
European Summer Time
(MEST), Central European Daylight Saving Time (CEDT), and Bravo Time (after the second letter of the NATO phonetic alphabet)
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Age Of Enlightenment
The Enlightenment
The Enlightenment
(also known as the Age of Enlightenment
Age of Enlightenment
or the Age of Reason;[1] in French: le Siècle des Lumières, lit. '"the Century of Lights"'; and in German: Aufklärung, "Enlightenment")[2] was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".[3] The Enlightenment
The Enlightenment
included a range of ideas centered on reason as the primary source of authority and legitimacy and came to advance ideals like liberty, progress, tolerance, fraternity, constitutional government and separation of church and state.[4][5] In France, the central doctrines of the Enlightenment philosophers were individual liberty and religious tolerance, in opposition to an absolute monarchy and the fixed dogmas of the Roman Catholic Church
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Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor
Francis I (German: Franz Stefan, French: François Étienne; 8 December 1708 – 18 August 1765)[1] was Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
and Grand Duke of Tuscany, though his wife effectively executed the real powers of those positions. With his wife, Maria Theresa, he was the founder of the Habsburg-Lorraine
Habsburg-Lorraine
dynasty. From 1728 until 1737 he was Duke of Lorraine. Francis traded the duchy to the ex-Polish king Stanisław Leszczyński in exchange for the Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Tuscany
as one of the terms ending the War of the Polish Succession
War of the Polish Succession
in November 1738
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André Morellet
André Morellet
André Morellet
(7 March 1727 – 12 January 1819) was a French economist writer and contributor to the Encyclopédie
Encyclopédie
ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers.[1] He was one of the last of the philosophes, and in this character he figures in many memoirs, such as those of Madame de Rémusat.Contents1 Biography 2 Works2.1 Main books 2.2 Translations from English and Italian3 References 4 External linksBiography[edit] He was born at Lyon, and educated by the Jesuits there, and later at the Sorbonne. He took holy orders, but without much conviction. Voltaire
Voltaire
called him "L'Abbé Mords-les" ("Father Bite-them"), because of his ready and biting wit
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Palace Of Versailles
The Palace of Versailles
Palace of Versailles
(French: Château
Château
de Versailles), or simply Versailles (English: /vɛərˈsaɪ/ vair-SY or /vərˈsaɪ/ vər-SY; French: [vɛʁsaj]), is a royal château in Versailles in the Île-de-France
Île-de-France
region of France. It is now open as a museum and is a very popular tourist attraction. When the château was built, the community of Versailles was a small village dating from the 11th century. Today, however, it is a wealthy suburb of Paris, some 20 kilometres (12 mi) southwest of the centre of the French capital.[1] Versailles was the seat of political power in the Kingdom of France
France
from 1682, when King Louis XIV
Louis XIV
moved the royal court from Paris, until the royal family was forced to return to the capital in October 1789, within three months after the beginning of the French Revolution
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Duke Of Lorraine
The rulers of Lorraine have held different posts under different governments over different regions. The first rulers of the region were kings of the Franks whose kingdom was called Lotharingia. The Latin construction "Lotharingia" evolved over time into "Lorraine" in French, "Lotharingen" in Dutch and "Lothringen" in German. After the Carolingian
Carolingian
kingdom was absorbed into its neighbouring realms in the late ninth century, dukes were appointed over the territory
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Louis XV Of France
Louis XV (15 February 1710 – 10 May 1774), known as Louis the Beloved,[1] was a monarch of the House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
who ruled as King of France
France
from 1 September 1715 until his death in 1774. He succeeded his great-grandfather Louis XIV
Louis XIV
at the age of five. Until he reached maturity in 1723, his kingdom was ruled by Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, as Regent of France. Cardinal Fleury was his chief minister from 1726 until the Cardinal's death in 1743, at which time the young king took sole control of the kingdom. His reign of more than 58 years was the second-longest in the history of France, exceeded only by his predecessor and great-grandfather, Louis XIV.[2] In 1748, Louis returned the Austrian Netherlands, territory won at the Battle of Fontenoy
Battle of Fontenoy
of 1745
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Parterre
A parterre is a formal garden constructed on a level substrate, consisting of plant beds, typically in symmetrical patterns, which are separated and connected by paths. The borders of the plant beds may be formed with stone or tightly pruned hedging, and their interiors may be planted with flowers or other plants or filled with mulch or gravel. The paths are constituted with gravel or turf grass. French parterres originated in the gardens of the French Renaissance of the 15th century and often had the form of knot gardens. Later, during the 17th century Baroque
Baroque
era, they became more elaborate and stylised
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Communes Of France
(including overseas)Departments (including overseas)ArrondissementsCantonsIntercommunality Métropole Communauté urbaine Communauté d'agglomération Communauté de communesCommunes Associated communes Municipal arrondissementsOthers in Overseas France Overseas collectivities Sui generis collectivity Overseas country Overseas territory Clipperton IslandThe commune (French pronunciation: ​[kɔmyn]) is a level of administrative division in the French Republic. French communes are roughly equivalent to civil townships and incorporated municipalities in the United States
United States
or Gemeinden in Germany. The United Kingdom has no exact equivalent, as communes resemble districts in urban areas, but are closer to parishes in rural areas where districts are much larger
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André Le Nôtre
André Le Nôtre
André Le Nôtre
(12 March 1613 – 15 September 1700), originally rendered as André Le Nostre,[1] was a French landscape architect and the principal gardener of King Louis XIV of France. Most notably, he was the landscape architect who designed the park of the Palace of Versailles, and his work represents the height of the French formal garden style, or jardin à la française. Prior to working on Versailles, Le Nôtre collaborated with Louis Le Vau and Charles Le Brun
Charles Le Brun
on the park at Vaux-le-Vicomte. His other works include the design of gardens and parks at Chantilly, Fontainebleau, Saint-Cloud and Saint-Germain
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Subprefecture
Subprefecture
Subprefecture
is an administrative division of a country that is below prefecture or province.Contents1 Albania 2 Brazil 3 Burkina Faso 4 Chad 5 China 6 France 7 Guadeloupe 8 Guinea 9 Ivory Coast 10 Japan 11 Taiwan 12 NotesAlbania[edit] There are twelve Albanian counties or prefectures, each of which is subdivided into several districts, sometimes translated as subprefectures.Examples: District
District
of Korçë, District
District
of SarandëBrazil[edit] In Brazil
Brazil
the subprefectures (Portuguese: subprefeituras) are administrative divisions of some big cities, such as São Paulo
São Paulo
and Rio de Janeiro. The head of a subprefecture, the subprefeito, is indicated by the municipality's mayor (in Brazil
Brazil
called prefeito). In São Paulo
São Paulo
there are 32 subprefectures
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German Language
No official regulation ( German orthography
German orthography
regulated by the Council for German Orthography[4]). Language
Language
codesISO 639-1 deISO 639-2 ger (B) deu (T)ISO 639-3 Variously: deu – German gmh&#
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Population Without Double Counting
Population without double counting is an English translation of the French phrase Population sans doubles comptes. In France, for the purposes of the census, the INSEE has defined several population indicators that allow people who live in more than one place to be counted in each place, to study and keep count of population movement. So each commune in France
France
does not have only one figure for the population, but several; for example students may be counted both where they study and where they live when not studying
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Szlachta
The szlachta ([ˈʂlaxta] ( listen), exonym: Nobility) was a legally privileged noble class in the Kingdom of Poland, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Ruthenia, Samogitia
Samogitia
(both after Union of Lublin
Union of Lublin
became a sin
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