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Ludovico Trevisan
Ludovico Trevisan
Ludovico Trevisan
(November 1401 – March 22, 1465) was an Italian catholic prelate, who was the Chamberlain of the Apostolic Camera, Patriarch of Aquileia and Captain General of the Church
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Conclave Capitulation
A conclave capitulation was a compact or unilateral contract drawn up by the College of Cardinals
College of Cardinals
during a papal conclave to constrain the actions of the pope elected by the conclave. The legal term capitulation more frequently refers to the commitment of a sovereign state to relinquish jurisdiction within its borders over the subjects of a foreign state
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Niccolò Piccinino
Niccolò Piccinino
Niccolò Piccinino
(1386 – 15 October 1444) was an Italian condottiero. Biography[edit] He was born at Perugia, was the son of a butcher. He began his military career in the service of Braccio da Montone, who at that time was waging war against Perugia
Perugia
on his own account, and at the death of his chief, shortly followed by that of the latter's son Oddo, Piccinino became leader of Braccio's condotta. After serving for a short period under the Florentine Republic, he went over to Filippo Maria Visconti, duke of Milan (1425), in whose service together with Niccolò Fortebraccio he fought in the Wars in Lombardy against the league of Pope Eugene IV, Venice
Venice
and Florence. [1] After an outstanding victory over the Venetians at the battle of Delebio (19 November 1432), he defeated the papal forces at Castel Bolognese (1434)
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Papal Legate
A papal legate or Apostolic legate (from the Ancient Roman title legatus) is a personal representative of the pope to foreign nations, or to some part of the Catholic Church. He is empowered on matters of Catholic Faith and for the settlement of ecclesiastical matters. The legate is appointed directly by the pope (the bishop of Rome, head of the Catholic Church and (historically) head of state of the papal states)
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Romagna
Romagna
Romagna
(Romagnol: Rumâgna) is an Italian historical region that approximately corresponds to the south-eastern portion of present-day Emilia-Romagna. Traditionally, it is limited by the Apennines to the south-west, the Adriatic
Adriatic
to the east, and the rivers Reno and Sillaro to the north and west
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Bologna
Bologna
Bologna
(/bəˈloʊniə/; Italian: [boˈloɲːa] ( listen); Emilian: Bulåggna IPA: [buˈlʌɲːa]; Latin: Bononia) is the capital and largest city of the Emilia-Romagna
Emilia-Romagna
Region in Northern Italy. It is the seventh most populous city in Italy, at the heart of a metropolitan area of about one million people. Of Etruscan origin, the city has been a major urban centre for centuries, first under the Etruscans, then under the Romans (Bononia), then again in the Middle Ages, as a free municipality and signoria, when it was among the largest European cities by population
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Viterbo
Viterbo
Viterbo
[viˈtɛrbo]  listen (help·info) is an ancient city and comune in the Lazio
Lazio
region of central Italy, the capital of the province of Viterbo. It conquered and absorbed the neighboring town of Ferento (see Ferentium) in its early history. It is approximately 80 kilometres (50 miles) north of GRA (Rome) on the Via Cassia, and it is surrounded by the Monti Cimini
Monti Cimini
and Monti Volsini. The historic center of the city is surrounded by medieval walls, still intact, built during the 11th and 12th centuries. Entrance to the walled center of the city is through ancient gates. Apart from agriculture, the main resources of Viterbo's area are pottery, marble, and wood. The town is home to the Italian gold reserves, an important Academy of Fine Arts, the University of Tuscia, and the Italian Army's Aviation Command headquarters and training centre
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Civitavecchia
Civitavecchia
Civitavecchia
[ˌtʃivitaˈvɛkkja] is a town and comune of the Metropolitan City of Rome in the central Italian region of Lazio. A sea port on the Tyrrhenian Sea, it is located 80 kilometres (50 miles) west-north-west of center of Rome, across the Mignone river. The harbour is formed by two piers and a breakwater, on which is a lighthouse. The name Civitavecchia
Civitavecchia
means "ancient town". Population was around 53,000 as of 2015.Contents1 History 2 Economy 3 Main sights 4 Geography4.1 Climate5 Transport 6 Education 7 Twin towns and sister cities 8 People 9 See also 10 References 11 External linksHistory[edit] Civitavecchia
Civitavecchia
in 1795, etching by William Marlow.The modern city was built over a pre-existing Etruscan settlement. The harbour was constructed by the Emperor Trajan
Emperor Trajan
at the beginning of the 2nd century
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Tuscany
Tuscany
Tuscany
(/ˈtʌskəni/ TUSK-ə-nee; Italian: Toscana, pronounced [toˈskaːna]) is a region in central Italy
Italy
with an area of about 23,000 square kilometres (8,900 square miles) and a population of about 3.8 million inhabitants (2013). The regional capital is Florence
Florence
(Firenze). Tuscany
Tuscany
is known for its landscapes, traditions, history, artistic legacy, and its influence on high culture. It is regarded as the birthplace of the Italian Renaissance[4] and has been home to many figures influential in the history of art and science, and contains well-known museums such as the Uffizi
Uffizi
and the Pitti Palace. Tuscany produces wines, including Chianti, Vino Nobile di Montepulciano, Morellino di Scansano
Morellino di Scansano
and Brunello di Montalcino
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Francesco I Sforza
Francesco I Sforza
Sforza
(Italian pronunciation: [franˌtʃesko ˌpriːmo ˈsfɔrtsa]; 23 July 1401 – 8 March 1466) was an Italian condottiero, the founder of the Sforza
Sforza
dynasty in Milan, Italy, and was the fourth Duke of Milan
Milan
from 1450 until his death. He was the brother of Alessandro, whom he often fought alongside.Contents1 Biography1.1 Early life 1.2 Duke of Milan2 Culture 3 Issue 4 Notes 5 SourcesBiography[edit] Early life[edit] Francesco Sforza
Sforza
was born in San Miniato, Tuscany, one of the seven illegitimate sons of the condottiero Muzio Sforza
Muzio Sforza
and Lucia da Torsano. He spent his childhood in Tricarico
Tricarico
(in the modern Basilicata), the marquisate of which he was granted in 1412 by King Ladislaus of Naples
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Condottieri
Condottieri
Condottieri
(Italian: [kondotˈtjɛːri]; singular condottiero and condottiere) were the leaders of the professional military free companies (or mercenaries) contracted by the Italian city-states
Italian city-states
and the Papacy[1] from the late Middle Ages and throughout the Renaissance. In Renaissance
Renaissance
Italian, condottiero meant "contractor". In contemporary Italian, "condottiero" acquired the broader meaning of "military leader", not restricted to mercenaries.[2] In Italian historiography, Renaissance
Renaissance
mercenary captains are usually called capitani di ventura (literally "venture captains")
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Humanism
Humanism
Humanism
is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism and empiricism) over acceptance of dogma or superstition. The meaning of the term humanism has fluctuated according to the successive intellectual movements which have identified with it.[1] The term was coined by theologian Friedrich Niethammer at the beginning of the 19th century to refer to a system of education based on the study of classical literature ("classical humanism")
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Vicar
A vicar (/ˈvɪkər/; Latin: vicarius) is a representative, deputy or substitute; anyone acting "in the person of" or agent for a superior (compare "vicarious" in the sense of "at second hand"). Linguistically, vicar is cognate with the English prefix "vice", similarly meaning "deputy". The title appears in a number of Christian ecclesiastical contexts, but also as an administrative title, or title modifier, in the Roman Empire
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Alexander The Great
Alexander
Alexander
III of Macedon
Macedon
(20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander
Alexander
the Great (Ancient Greek: Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Μέγας, translit. Aléxandros ho Mégas, Koine
Koine
Greek: [a.lék.san.dros ho mé.gas]), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon[a] and a member of the Argead
Argead
dynasty. He was born in Pella
Pella
in 356 BC and succeeded his father Philip II to the throne at the age of twenty
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Hannibal
Hannibal
Hannibal
Barca (Punic language: 𐤇𐤍𐤁𐤏𐤋 𐤁𐤓𐤒‬ ḥnb‘l brq; 247 – between 183 and 181 BC),[n 1] was a Carthaginian general, considered one of the greatest military commanders in history. His father Hamilcar Barca
Hamilcar Barca
was the leading Carthaginian commander during the First Punic War. His younger brothers were Mago and Hasdrubal, and he was brother-in-law to Hasdrubal the Fair. Hannibal
Hannibal
lived during a period of great tension in the western Mediterranean Basin, when the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
established its supremacy over other great powers such as ancient Carthage, the Etruscans, Samnites
Samnites
and the Greek kingdom of Syracuse
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San Pancrazio
The church of San Pancrazio
San Pancrazio
(English: S. Pancras; Latin: S. Pancratii) is a Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
ancient basilica and titular church founded by Pope Symmachus
Pope Symmachus
in the 6th century in Rome, Italy. It stands in via S. Pancrazio, westward beyond the Porta San Pancrazio
Porta San Pancrazio
that opens in a stretch of the Aurelian Wall
Aurelian Wall
on the Janiculum. The Cardinal Priest
Cardinal Priest
of the Titulus S. Pancratii is Antonio Cañizares Llovera
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