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Lucius Cornelius Sulla
Lucius Cornelius Sulla
Sulla
Felix[1] (/ˈsʌlə/; c. 138 BC – 78 BC), known commonly as Sulla, was a Roman general and statesman. He had the distinction of holding the office of consul twice, as well as reviving the dictatorship. Sulla
Sulla
was a skillful general, achieving numerous successes in wars against different opponents, both foreign and Roman. He was awarded a grass crown, the most prestigious Roman military honor, during the Social War. Sulla's dictatorship came during a high point in the struggle between optimates and populares, the former seeking to maintain the Senate's oligarchy, and the latter espousing populism. In a dispute over the eastern army command (initially awarded to Sulla
Sulla
by the Senate but withdrawn as a result of Gaius Marius's intrigues) Sulla
Sulla
marched on Rome
Rome
in an unprecedented act and defeated Marius in battle
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Sulla (other)
Sulla can refer to:Sulla, a Roman dictatorSulla, the cognomen used by members of Cornelii Sullae, a family within the gens Cornelia and relatives of the Roman dictatorSulla (plant), a genus of legumes A Celtic goddess also called Sulis Sullah Upazila, a place in BangladeshThis disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Sulla. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the
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Lysander
Lysander
Lysander
(/laɪˈsændər, ˈlaɪˌsændər/; died 395 BC, Greek: Λύσανδρος, Lýsandros) was a Spartan admiral who commanded the Spartan fleet in the Hellespont
Hellespont
which defeated the Athenians at Aegospotami in 405 BC
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Munich
Munich
Munich
(/ˈmjuːnɪk/; German: München, pronounced [ˈmʏnçn̩] ( listen),[2] Austro-Bavarian: Minga [ˈmɪŋ(ː)ɐ]) is the capital and the most populated city in the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of the River Isar
Isar
north of the Bavarian Alps
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Populares
The populares (/ˌpɒpjəˈlɛəriːz, ˌpɒpjəˈleɪriːz/; Latin: populares, "favouring the people", singular popularis) were a grouping in the late Roman Republic
Roman Republic
which favoured the cause of the plebeians (the commoners), particularly the urban poor. They supported laws regarding the provision of a grain dole for the poor by the state at a subsidized price.[1][2] They wanted reforms which helped the poor, particularly redistributing land for the poor to farm, and debt relief. At times they also supported the extension of Roman citizenship to Rome's Italic allies. A popularis was a politician who supported this faction. The populares are regarded in modern scholarship as in opposition to the optimates, who are identified with the conservative interests of the patricians (the aristocracy) and supported the senate, which represented its interests
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Second Punic War
768,50054,000 Active Roman soldiers 53,500 Roman capital detail 388,000 Socii 273,300 ReservesUnknownCasualties and losses300,000+ killed in action Unknownv t eSecond Punic WarPreludeSaguntum Rhone Crossing of the AlpsItalyTicinus Trebia Lake Trasimene Ager Falernus Geronium Cannae 1st Nola 2nd Nola 3rd Nola 1st Beneventum 1st Tarentum 1st Capua Silarus 1st Herdonia 2nd Beneventum 2nd Capua 2nd Herdonia Numistro Battle of Canusium 2nd Tarentum Grumentum Metaurus Crotona Po ValleyIberiaCissa Dertosa Upper Baetis 1st New Carthage Baecula Carmona Sucro Ilipa Guadalquivir Sicily
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Marian Reforms
The Marian reforms
Marian reforms
of 107 BC were a group of military reforms initiated by Gaius Marius, a statesman and general of the Roman Republic.Contents1 Background 2 Marian reforms 3 Impact of Marian reforms 4 Subsequent modifications 5 Further reading 6 References 7 External linksBackground[edit] Until the last decade of the 2nd century BC, the eligibility requirements to become a Roman soldier in the service of the Republic were very strict:He had to be a member of the fifth census class or higher (the adsidui, or "tax-payers"). He had to own property worth 3500 sesterces in value. H
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Marcus Terentius Varro
Marcus Terentius Varro
Marcus Terentius Varro
(116 BC – 27 BC) was an ancient Roman scholar and writer. He is sometimes called Varro Reatinus to distinguish him from his younger contemporary Varro Atacinus.Contents1 Biography 2 Calendars 3 Works3.1 Extant works 3.2 Known lost works4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksBiography[edit]Statue of Marcus Terentius Varro
Marcus Terentius Varro
in RietiVarro was born in or near Reate (now Rieti)[1] to a family thought to be of equestrian rank, and always remained close to his roots in the area, owning a large farm in the Reatine plain, reported as near Lago di Ripa Sottile,[2] until his old age
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Parallel Lives
Plutarch's Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans, commonly called Parallel Lives
Parallel Lives
or Plutarch's Lives, is a series of biographies of famous men, arranged in tandem to illuminate their common moral virtues or failings, probably written at the beginning of the second century AD.[1] The surviving Parallel Lives
Parallel Lives
(Greek: Βίοι Παράλληλοι, Bíoi Parállēloi) comprises 23 pairs of biographies, each pair consisting of one Greek and one Roman, as well as four unpaired, single lives
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Appian
Appian
Appian
of Alexandria
Alexandria
(/ˈæpiən/; Greek: Ἀππιανὸς Ἀλεξανδρεύς Appianós Alexandréus; Latin: Appianus Alexandrinus; c. AD 95 – c. AD 165) was a Greek historian with Roman citizenship who flourished during the reigns of Emperors of Rome
Rome
Trajan, Hadrian, and Antoninus Pius. He was born c. 95 in Alexandria. After holding the chief offices in the province of Aegyptus (Egypt), he went to Rome
Rome
c. 120, where he practised as an advocate, pleading cases before the emperors (probably as advocatus fisci).[1] It was in 147 at the earliest that he was appointed to the office of procurator, probably in Egypt, on the recommendation of his friend Marcus Cornelius Fronto, a well-known litterateur
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Julia Cornelia
Julia, or possibly Ilia (c. 129 BC – c. 104 BC), was a Roman noblewoman who was the first wife of Sulla, later a Roman dictator. Little is known of her life and sources are confused as to whether her name was Julia or Ilia. If Julia is correct, she could have been a daughter of Lucius Julius Caesar II, and therefore a sister of future consul Lucius Julius Caesar III and Gaius Julius Caesar Strabo Vopiscus.[1] Around 110 BC, while both were young, Julia married Sulla. A marital connection to the Julii Caesares may have served Sulla in his political life, as when he was chosen to serve under Gaius Marius in the Jugurthine War.[2] Julia and Sulla had a daughter, Cornelia, who later was active in Roman society. Julia apparently died young, and Sulla married his second wife, Aelia.[1] In the historical novel, The First Man in Rome by Colleen McCullough she is a character with the name Julilla who is the younger daughter of Gaius Julius Caesar. Notes[edit]^ a b Keaveney, p
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Patrician (ancient Rome)
The patricians (from Latin: patricius) were originally a group of ruling class families in ancient Rome. The distinction was highly significant in the early Republic—but its relevance waned after the Conflict of the Orders
Conflict of the Orders
(494 BC to 287 BC), and by the time of the late Republic and Empire, membership in the patriciate was of only nominal significance. After the Western Empire fell, it remained a high honorary title in the Byzantine Empire. Medieval patrician classes were once again formally defined groups of leading burgess families in many medieval Italian republics, such as Venice and Genoa, and subsequently "patrician" became a vague term used for aristocrats and the higher bourgeoisie in many countries.Contents1 Origin 2 Roman Republic
Roman Republic
and Empire2.1 Status 2.2 Patricians vs
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Gens
In ancient Rome, a gens (/ˈɡɛns/ or /ˈdʒɛnz/), plural gentes, was a family consisting of all those individuals who shared the same nomen and claimed descent from a common ancestor. A branch of a gens was called a stirps (plural stirpes). The gens was an important social structure at Rome and throughout Italy during the period of the Roman Republic. Much of an individual's social standing depended on the gens to which he belonged. Certain gentes were considered patrician, others plebeian, while some had both patrician and plebeian branches. The importance of membership in a gens declined considerably in imperial times.[1][2]Contents1 Origin of the gens1.1 Stirpes 1.2 Praenomina2 Social function of the gens 3 Patrician and plebeian gentes 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksOrigin of the gens[edit] The word gens is sometimes translated as "race" or "nation", meaning a people descended from a common ancestor (rather than sharing a common physical trait)
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Sallust
Gaius Sallustius Crispus, usually anglicised as Sallust
Sallust
(/ˈsæləst/; 86 – c. 35 BC[1]), was a Roman historian, politician, and novus homo from an Italian plebeian family. Sallust
Sallust
was born at Amiternum
Amiternum
in the country of the Sabines
Sabines
and was a popularis, an opponent of the old Roman aristocracy, throughout his career, and later a partisan of Julius Caesar. Sallust
Sallust
is the earliest known Roman historian with surviving works to his name, of which Catiline's War (about the conspiracy in 63 BC of L
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Cursus Honorum
The cursus honorum (Latin: "course of offices") was the sequential order of public offices held by aspiring politicians in both the Roman Republic
Republic
and the early Roman Empire. It was designed for men of senatorial rank. The cursus honorum comprised a mixture of military and political administration posts. Each office had a minimum age for election. There were minimum intervals between holding successive offices and laws forbade repeating an office.[citation needed] These rules were altered and flagrantly ignored in the course of the last century of the Republic. For example, Gaius Marius
Gaius Marius
held consulships for five years in a row between 104 BC and 100 BC. He held consulship a total of seven times, also serving 86, and 107 BC. Officially presented as opportunities for public service, the offices often became mere opportunities for self-aggrandizement
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Jugurtha
French Algeria
French Algeria
(19th - 20th centuries)French conquest French governorsResistance PacificationEmir Abdelkader Fatma N'SoumerMokrani Revolt Cheikh BouamamaNationalism RCUA FLN GPRAAlgerian War 1958 putsch 1961 putschÉvian Accords Independence referendumPied-Noir Harkis Oujda GroupContemporary era 1960s–80sArab nationalism 1965 putschBerber Spring 1988 Riots1990s Algerian Civil War
Algerian Civil War
(Timeline)FIS GIA List of massacresHigh Council of State Civil Concord2000s to presentPeace Charter AQIM Arab SpringRelated topicsOutline of Algeria Military history of Algeria (List of wars involving Algeria) Postal history of Algeria (List of people on stamps of Algeria) History of North Africa Algeria
Algeria
portalv t e Jugurtha
Jugurtha
or Jugurthen (c
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