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Lower Paleolithic
Pliocene
Pliocene
(before Homo
Homo
) Lower Paleolithic (c. 3.3 Ma – 300 ka ) * Oldowan (2.6–1.7 Ma) *
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Lower Pleistocene
The EARLY PLEISTOCENE (also known as the LOWER PLEISTOCENE) is a subepoch in the international geologic timescale or a subseries in chronostratigraphy , being the earliest or lowest subdivision of the Quaternary period/system and Pleistocene
Pleistocene
epoch/series. It spans the time between 2.588 ± 0.005 Ma (million years ago) and 0.781 ± 0.005 Ma. The Early Pleistocene
Pleistocene
consists of the Gelasian and the Calabrian ages
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Homo
Homo sapiens
Homo sapiens
Homo erectus Homo floresiensis
Homo floresiensis
Homo habilis
Homo habilis
Homo heidelbergensis
Homo heidelbergensis
Homo naledi Homo neanderthalensis other species or subspecies suggested, see below . SYNONYMS Synonyms * Africanthropus Dreyer, 1935 * Atlanthropus Arambourg, 1954 * Cyphanthropus Pycraft, 1928 * Pithecanthropus Dubois, 1894 * Protanthropus Haeckel, 1895 * Sinanthropus Black, 1927 * Tchadanthropus Coppens, 1965 * Telanthropus Broom "> Evolutionary tree chart emphasizing the subfamily Homininae and the tribe Hominini. After diverging from the line to Ponginae the early Homininae split into the tribes Hominini and Gorillini
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Australopithecine
AUSTRALOPITHECINES are generally all species in the related Australopithecus
Australopithecus
and Paranthropus
Paranthropus
genera , and it typically includes Kenyanthropus , Ardipithecus , and Praeanthropus . All these related species are now sometimes collectively classified as a subtribe of the Hominini tribe called AUSTRALOPITHECINA. They are the extinct, close relatives of humans and, with the extant genus Homo , comprise the human clade . Members of the human clade, i.e. the Hominini after the split from the chimpanzees, are now called homonina (see Hominidae; terms "hominids" and hominins ). The terms australopithecine, et al., come from a former classification as members of a distinct subfamily, the Australopithecinae
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Australopithecus Garhi
AUSTRALOPITHECUS GARHI is a 2.5-million-year-old gracile australopithecine species whose fossils were discovered in 1996 by a research team led by Ethiopian paleontologist Berhane Asfaw and Tim White , an American paleontologist. The hominin remains are believed to be a human ancestor species and possibly the direct ancestor to the human genus, Homo
Homo
. CONTENTS * 1 Discovery * 2 Morphology and interpretations * 2.1 Earliest stone tools * 3 Timelines * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links DISCOVERYTim White was the scientist to find the first of the key A. garhi fossils in 1996 in the Bouri Formation , located in the Middle Awash of Ethiopia
Ethiopia
's Afar Depression . The species was confirmed and established as A. garhi on November 20, 1997 by the Ethiopian paleoanthropologist Yohannes Haile-Selassie
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Olduvai Gorge
OLDUVAI GORGE, or OLDUPAI GORGE, in Tanzania
Tanzania
is one of the most important paleoanthropological sites in the world; it has proven invaluable in furthering understanding of early human evolution . A steep-sided ravine in the Great Rift Valley that stretches across East Africa , it is about 48 km (30 mi) long, and is located in the eastern Serengeti Plains in the Arusha Region not far, about 45 kilometres (28 miles), from Laetoli , another important archaeological site of early human occupation. The British/Kenyan paleoanthropologist-archeologist team Mary and Louis Leakey
Louis Leakey
established and developed the excavation and research programs at OLDUVAI GORGE which achieved great advances of human knowledge and world-renowned status
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Gelasian
The GELASIAN is an age in the international geologic timescale or a stage in chronostratigraphy , being the earliest or lowest subdivision of the Quaternary period/system and Pleistocene epoch/series. It spans the time between 2.588 ± 0.005 Ma (million years ago) and 1.806 ± 0.005 Ma. It follows the Piacenzian stage (part of the Pliocene ) and is followed by the Calabrian stage. During the Gelasian the Red Crag of Butley and Newbourn and the Norwich and Weybourne Crags, all from East Anglia (England) were deposited. The Gelasian is an equivalent of the Praetiglian and Tiglian stages as defined in the Netherlands , which are commonly used in northwestern Europe. CONTENTS * 1 Definition * 2 References * 2.1 Notes * 2.2 Literature DEFINITIONThe Gelasian was introduced in the geologic timescale in 1998
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Hominini
Homo
Homo
Pan † Australopithecina * † Australopithecus
Australopithecus
* † Kenyanthropus * † Paranthropus
Paranthropus
* † Ardipithecus Sahelanthropus
Sahelanthropus
Orrorin
Orrorin
?† Graecopithecus († =extinct =fossil) The HOMININI is a taxonomical tribe of the subfamily Homininae ; it comprises three subtribes: Hominina , with its one genus Homo
Homo
; Australopithecina , comprising at least three extinct (or, fossil) genera (see inset at bottom right); and Panina , with its one genus Pan , the chimpanzees (see the evolutionary tree below)
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Archaeological Record
The ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD is the body of physical (not written ) evidence about the past. It is one of the core concepts in archaeology , the academic discipline concerned with documenting and interpreting the archaeological record. Archaeological theory is used to interpret the archaeological record for a better understanding of human cultures. The archaeological record can consist of the earliest ancient findings as well as contemporary artifacts . Human activity has had a large impact on the archaeological record. Destructive human processes, such as agriculture and land development , may damage or destroy potential archaeological sites . Other threats to the archaeological record include natural phenomena and scavenging. Archaeology
Archaeology
can be a destructive science for the finite resources of the archaeological record are lost to excavation
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Prepared-core Technique
The PREPARED-CORE TECHNIQUE is means of producing stone tools by first preparing common stone cores that can then be shaped into the desired implement. CONTENTS* 1 History of prepared-core processing * 1.1 First evidence * 2 Methods for reducing cores * 2.1 Centripetal core reduction * 2.2 Levallois Core Reduction * 3 References HISTORY OF PREPARED-CORE PROCESSINGFIRST EVIDENCEAlthough there had been different types of tools created prior to this technique, mostly that of handaxes and cleavers, this new technique was a great advancement for early man. Believed roughly to have been first used 200,000 years ago this technique involved a removal of flakes from a piece of stone to achieve desired shape and thickness
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Epigravettian
Georges Laplace (fr), 1958 (broader-than-modern meaning) Broglio, Laplace et al., 1963 (modern meaning, as “Tardigravettiano”) The EPIGRAVETTIAN (Greek: epi "above, on top of", and Gravettian ) was one of the last archaeological industries of the European Upper Paleolithic . It arose after the Last Glacial Maximum around ~21,000 cal. BP . It is related to the Gravettian , of which it is considered a continuation by some scholars (e.g. G. Laplace). In this sense, the Epigravettian
Epigravettian
is simply the Gravettian after ~21,000 BP, when the Solutrean had replaced the Gravettian in most of France and Spain. Its known range extends from southeast France to the western shores of the Volga River , Russia, with a large number of sites in Italy. It was replaced by Mesolithic cultures around 10,000 BP. REFERENCES * ^ Montoya, Cyril (2004)
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Scavenging
SCAVENGING is both a carnivorous and a herbivorous feeding behavior in which the scavenger feeds on dead animal and plant material present in its habitat. The eating of carrion from the same species is referred to as cannibalism . Scavengers play an important role in the ecosystem by consuming the dead animal and plant material. Decomposers and detritivores complete this process, by consuming the remains left by scavengers
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Bone Marrow
BONE MARROW is the flexible tissue in the interior of bones . In humans , red blood cells are produced by cores of bone marrow in the heads of long bones in a process known as hematopoiesis . On average, bone marrow constitutes 4% of the total body mass of humans; in an adult having 65 kilograms of mass (143 lb), bone marrow typically accounts for approximately 2.6 kilograms (5.7 lb). The hematopoietic component of bone marrow produces approximately 500 billion blood cells per day, which use the bone marrow vasculature as a conduit to the body's systemic circulation. Bone
Bone
marrow is also a key component of the lymphatic system , producing the lymphocytes that support the body's immune system . In addition to hematopoietic cells, the marrow is composed of marrow adipose tissue as well as trabecular bone
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Australopithecines
AUSTRALOPITHECINES are generally all species in the related Australopithecus
Australopithecus
and Paranthropus
Paranthropus
genera , and it typically includes Kenyanthropus , Ardipithecus
Ardipithecus
, and Praeanthropus . All these related species are now sometimes collectively classified as a subtribe of the Hominini tribe called AUSTRALOPITHECINA. They are the extinct, close relatives of humans and, with the extant genus Homo , comprise the human clade . Members of the human clade, i.e. the Hominini after the split from the chimpanzees, are now called homonina (see Hominidae; terms "hominids" and hominins ). The terms australopithecine, et al., come from a former classification as members of a distinct subfamily, the Australopithecinae
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Derek Bickerton
DEREK BICKERTON (born March 25, 1926) is a linguist and Professor Emeritus at the University of Hawaii
University of Hawaii
, Manoa
Manoa
. Based on his work in creole languages in Guyana
Guyana
and Hawaii
Hawaii
, he has proposed that the features of creole languages provide powerful insights into the development of language both by individuals and as a feature of the human species. He is the originator and main proponent of the language bioprogram hypothesis according to which the similarity of creoles is due to their being formed from a prior pidgin by children who all share a universal human innate grammar capacity. Bickerton also wrote several novels. He is the father of contemporary artist Ashley Bickerton . His novels have been featured in the works of the Sun Ra Revival Post Krautrock Archestra, through spoken word and musical themes
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Hominina
Homo sapiens
Homo sapiens
Homo erectus
Homo erectus
Homo floresiensis
Homo floresiensis
Homo habilis
Homo habilis
Homo heidelbergensis
Homo heidelbergensis
Homo naledi Homo neanderthalensis other species or subspecies suggested, see below . SYNONYMS Synonyms * Africanthropus Dreyer, 1935 * Atlanthropus Arambourg, 1954 * Cyphanthropus Pycraft, 1928 * Pithecanthropus Dubois, 1894 * Protanthropus Haeckel, 1895 * Sinanthropus Black, 1927 * Tchadanthropus Coppens, 1965 * Telanthropus Broom "> Evolutionary tree
Evolutionary tree
chart emphasizing the subfamily Homininae
Homininae
and the tribe Hominini
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