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Low Franconian Languages
Low Franconian, Low Frankish (Dutch: Nederfrankisch, German: Niederfränkisch, French: Bas Francique) are a group of several West Germanic languages
Germanic languages
spoken in the Netherlands, northern Belgium (Flanders), in the Nord department of France, in western Germany (Lower Rhine), as well as in Suriname, South Africa
South Africa
and Namibia
Namibia
that originally descended from Old Frankish.Contents1 Frankish language1.1 Development2 Development of Dutch 3 Modern Low Franconian languages3.1 Dutch 3.2 Meuse-Rhenish 3.3 Afrikaans4 See also 5 Notes 6 Further readingFrankish language[edit] Main article: Frankish language The Frankish language, also "Old Frankish", was the language of the Franks. It is a West Germanic language and was spoken in Merovingian times, preceding the 7th century
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Netherlands
The Netherlands
The Netherlands
(/ˈnɛðərləndz/ ( listen); Dutch: Nederland [ˈneːdərˌlɑnt] ( listen)), also known informally as Holland, is a country in Western Europe
Europe
with a population of seventeen million
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Rhine Franconian Dialects
Rhine Franconian (German:  Rheinfränkisch (help·info)), or Rhenish Franconian, is a dialect family of West Central German. It comprises the German dialects spoken across the western regions of the states of Saarland, Rhineland-Palatinate, northwest Baden-Wurttemberg, and Hesse
Hesse
in Germany. It is also spoken in northeast France, in the eastern part of the département of Moselle
Moselle
in the Lorraine region, and in the north-west part of Bas-Rhin
Bas-Rhin
in Alsace
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Glottolog
Glottolog
Glottolog
is a bibliographic database of the world's lesser-known languages, developed and maintained first at the former Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, and since 2015 at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena, Germany. Glottolog
Glottolog
provides a catalogue of the world's languages and language families, and a bibliography on the world's less-spoken languages
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Meuse-Rhenish
Meuse-Rhenish
Meuse-Rhenish
(German: Rheinmaasländisch, Dutch: Maas-Rijnlands, and French: francique rhéno-mosan) is a modern term that refers to the literature written in the Middle Ages in the greater Meuse- Rhine
Rhine
area. This area str
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French Flemish
 Germanic languages   West Germanic    Franconian     Dutch      West Flemish       French FlemishOfficial StatusFrance None[3]Language CodeISO 639-3: vlsHistoric regression of Dutch in the Western periphery. The blue line indicates the situation in the 7th–8th century; the red line marks the situation during the 20th century; the black line is the current French-Belgian border.Flemish (green) and French (red/brown) as spoken in the arrondissement of Dunkirk
Dunkirk
in 1874 and 1972This articl
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West Central German
West Central German
Central German
(German: Westmitteldeutsche Dialekte) belongs to the Central, High German dialect family in the German language
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Attested Language
In linguistics, attested languages are languages (living or dead) that have been documented, and for which the evidence has survived to the present day. Evidence may be recordings, transcriptions, literature, or inscriptions. In contrast, unattested languages may be names of purported languages for which no direct evidence exists, languages for which all evidence has been lost, or hypothetical proto-languages proposed in linguistic reconstruction.[1] Within an attested language, particular word forms which are directly known to have been used – because they appear in the literature, inscriptions or documented speech – are called attested forms. These contrast with unattested forms, which are reconstructions, hypothesised to have been used based on indirect evidence (such as etymological patterns)
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Belgium
Coordinates: 50°50′N 4°00′E / 50.833°N 4.000°E / 50.833; 4.000Kingdom of BelgiumKoninkrijk België  (Dutch) Royaume de Belgique  (French) Königreich Belgien  (German)FlagCoat of armsMotto: "Eendracht maakt macht" (Dutch) "L'union fait la force" (French) "Einigkeit macht stark" (German) "Unity makes Strength"Anthem: "La Brabançonne" "The Brabantian"Location of  Belgium  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)Capital and largest city Brussels 50°51′N 4°21′E / 50.850°N 4.350°E / 50.850; 4.350Official languages Dutch French GermanEthnic groups see DemographicsReligion (2015[1])60.7% Christianity 32.0% No religion 5.2% Islam 2.1% Other religionsDemonym BelgianGovernment Federal parliamentary constitu
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Langues D'oïl
The langues d'oïl (/ˈdɔɪ(l), dɔːˈiːl/[2][3][4] French: [lɑ̃ɡdɔjl])[5] or oïl languages (also in French: langues d'oui [lɑ̃ɡdwi]) are a dialect continuum that includes standard French and its closest autochthonous relatives historically spoken in the northern half of France, southern Belgium, and the Channel Islands. These belong to the larger Gallo-Romance languages, which also include the historical languages of east-central France
France
and western Switzerland
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Loanword
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation
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Old French
Old French
Old French
(franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France
France
from the 8th century to the 14th century. In the 14th century, these dialects came to be collectively known as the langue d'oïl, contrasting with the langue d'oc or Occitan language
Occitan language
in the south of France
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Flanders
Flanders
Flanders
(Dutch: Vlaanderen [ˈvlaːndərə(n)] ( listen), French: Flandre [flɑ̃dʁ], German: Flandern, [flɑndɛɹn]) is the Dutch-speaking northern portion of Belgium, although there are several overlapping definitions, including ones related to culture, language, politics and history. It is one of the communities, regions and language areas of Belgium. The demonym associated with Flanders
Flanders
is Fleming, while the corresponding adjective is Flemish
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Nord (French Department)
Nord (French pronunciation: ​[nɔʁ]; English: North; Dutch: Noorderdepartement) is a department in the far north of France. It was created from the western halves of the historical counties of Flanders and Hainaut, and the Bishopric of Cambrai. The modern coat of arms was inherited from the County of Flanders. Nord is the country's most populous department. It also contains the metropolitan region of Lille, the fifth-largest urban area in France after Paris, Lyon, Marseille, and Toulouse
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Lower Rhine
The Lower Rhine (German: Niederrhein; kilometres 660 to 1,033 of the river Rhine) flows from Bonn, Germany, to the North Sea at Hoek van Holland, Netherlands (including the Nederrijn or "Nether Rhine" within the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta); alternatively, Lower Rhine may be refer to the part upstream of Pannerdens Kop, excluding the Nederrijn. Almost immediately after entering the Netherlands, the Rhine splits into numerous branches. The main branch is called the Waal which flows from Nijmegen to meet the Meuse; after which it is called Merwede. Near Rotterdam the river is known as Nieuwe Maas, and becomes the Nieuwe Waterweg flowing into the North Sea at Hoek van Holland. The downstream Lower Rhine is a low lying land. Up to the beginning of industrialization roughly one fifth of the land area could only be used as pasture: an endless meadow, which could not be farmed because of flooding and a high ground-water level
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Francia
Francia, also called the Kingdom of the Franks
Franks
(Latin: Regnum Francorum), or Frankish Empire
Empire
was the largest post-Roman Barbarian kingdom in Western Europe. It was ruled by the Franks
Franks
during Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages. The core Frankish territories inside the Roman empire
Roman empire
were close to the Rhine
Rhine
and Maas rivers in the north. After a period where small kingdoms inter-acted with the remaining Gallo-Roman institutions to their south, a single kingdom uniting them was founded by Clovis I
Clovis I
who was crowned King of the Franks
Franks
in 496
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