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Love In The Moonlight
MOONLIGHT is the light that reaches Earth
Earth
from the Moon
Moon
, consisting mostly of sunlight , with some starlight and earthlight reflected from those portions of its surface which the Sun
Sun
's light strikes. CONTENTS * 1 Illumination * 2 Folklore * 3 Moonlight
Moonlight
in art * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links ILLUMINATIONThe intensity of moonlight varies greatly depending on the lunar cycle but even the full Moon
Moon
typically provides only about 0.05-0.1 lux illumination. When the Moon
Moon
is nearest to Earth
Earth
and viewed at high altitude at tropical latitudes , the illuminance can reach 0.32 lux. The full Moon
Moon
is about 1,000,000 times fainter than the Sun
Sun

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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
( ISO
ISO
). An implementation of the Handle System , DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL , indicating where the object can be found
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Isis (journal)
ISIS is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by the University of Chicago Press
University of Chicago Press
. It covers the history of science , history of medicine , and the history of technology , as well as their cultural influences. It contains original research articles and extensive book reviews and review essays . Furthermore, sections devoted to one particular topic are published in each issue in open access . These sections consist of the Focus section, the Viewpoint section and the Second Look section. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 History of Science Society * 3 Journal title * 4 Editors * 5 Abstracting and indexing * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORYThe journal was established by George Sarton
George Sarton
and the first issue appeared in March 1913
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Clouds And The Earth's Radiant Energy System
CLOUDS AND THE EARTH\'S RADIANT ENERGY SYSTEM (CERES) is on-going NASA
NASA
climatological experiment from Earth orbit
Earth orbit
. The CERES are scientific satellite instruments, part of the NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS), designed to measure both solar-reflected and Earth-emitted radiation from the top of the atmosphere (TOA) to the Earth's surface. Cloud properties are determined using simultaneous measurements by other EOS instruments such as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Results from the CERES and other NASA
NASA
missions, such as the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), could lead to a better understanding of the role of clouds and the energy cycle in global climate change . Play media Incoming, top-of-atmosphere (TOA) shortwave flux radiation, shows energy received from the sun (Jan 26-27, 2012)
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Bibcode
The BIBCODE (also known as the REFCODE) is a compact identifier used by several astronomical data systems to uniquely specify literature references. CONTENTS * 1 Adoption * 2 Format * 3 Examples * 4 See also * 5 References ADOPTIONThe Bibliographic Reference Code (refcode) was originally developed to be used in SIMBAD and the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED), but it became a de facto standard and is now used more widely, for example, by the NASA Astrophysics Data System who coined and prefer the term "bibcode". FORMATThe code has a fixed length of 19 characters and has the form YYYYJJJJJVVVVMPPPPA where YYYY is the four-digit year of the reference and JJJJJ is a code indicating where the reference was published
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PubMed Identifier
PUBMED is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval . From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries . PubMed, first released in January 1996, ushered in the era of private, free, home- and office-based MEDLINE searching. The PubMed
PubMed
system was offered free to the public in June 1997, when MEDLINE searches via the Web were demonstrated, in a ceremony, by Vice President Al Gore
Al Gore

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G. J. Toomer
GERALD JAMES TOOMER (born 23 November 1934) is a historian of astronomy and mathematics who has written numerous books and papers on ancient Greek and medieval Islamic astronomy. In particular, he translated Ptolemy
Ptolemy
's Almagest
Almagest
into English. Formerly a fellow of Corpus Christi College , Cambridge University , he moved to Brown University
Brown University
as a special student in 1959 to study "the history of mathematics in antiquity and the transmission of these systems through Arabic into medieval Europe." He joined the History of Mathematics
Mathematics
department in 1963, became an associate professor in 1965, and was the chairman from 1980 to 1986. CONTENTS * 1 Some works * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links SOME WORKS * Diocles : On burning mirrors. The arabic translation of the lost greek original
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Scotobiology
The term SCOTOBIOLOGY describes the study of biology as directly and specifically affected by darkness , as opposed to photobiology , which describes the biological effects of light . CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Effects of darkness * 3 Etymology * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links OVERVIEWThe science of scotobiology gathers together under a single descriptive heading a wide range of approaches to the study of the biology of darkness. This includes work on the effects of darkness on the behavior and metabolism of animals, plants, and microbes . Some of this work has been going on for over a century, and lays the foundation for understanding the importance of dark night skies , not only for humans but for all biological species. The great majority of biological systems have evolved in a world of alternating day and night and have become irrevocably adapted to and dependent on the daily and seasonally changing patterns of light and darkness
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Philip James De Loutherbourg
PHILIP JAMES DE LOUTHERBOURG RA (31 October 1740 – 11 March 1812), whose name is sometimes given in the French form of PHILIPPE-JACQUES, the German form of PHILIPP JAKOB, or with the English-language epithet of THE YOUNGER, was a Franco -British painter who became known for his large naval works , his elaborate set designs for London theatres, and his invention of a mechanical theatre called the "Eidophusikon". He also had an interest in faith-healing and the occult and was a companion of Cagliostro . CONTENTS* 1 Early life * 1.1 Paris * 1.2 Travels * 2 London * 2.1 Theatre * 2.2 Painting * 3 Publications * 4 Esoteric interests * 5 Death * 6 Further reading * 7 References * 8 External links EARLY LIFELoutherbourg was born in Strasbourg
Strasbourg
in 1740, the son of an expatriate Polish miniature painter
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Airglow
AIRGLOW (also called NIGHTGLOW) is a faint emission of light by a planetary atmosphere . In the case of Earth's atmosphere this optical phenomenon causes the night sky to never be completely dark, even after the effects of starlight and diffused sunlight from the far side are removed. CONTENTS * 1 Development * 2 Description * 3 Calculation of the effects of airglow * 4 Induced airglow * 5 Experimental observation * 6 Observation of airglow on other Solar System planets * 7 Gallery * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links DEVELOPMENT Airglow
Airglow
in Allier, France, on the night of 13 August 2015 The airglow phenomenon was first identified in 1868 by Swedish physicist Anders Ångström . Since then, it has been studied in the laboratory, and various chemical reactions have been observed to emit electromagnetic energy as part of the process
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Daylight
DAYLIGHT, or THE LIGHT OF DAY, is the combination of all direct and indirect sunlight during the daytime . This includes direct sunlight , diffuse sky radiation , and (often) both of these reflected by the Earth
Earth
and terrestrial objects, like landforms and buildings. Sunlight scattered or reflected by objects in outer space (that is, beyond the Earth\'s atmosphere ) is generally not considered daylight. Thus, daylight excludes moonlight , despite it being indirect sunlight. Daytime is the period of time each day when daylight occurs. Daylight happens because Earth
Earth
rotates , and either side on which the Sun shines is considered daylight
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Diffuse Reflection
DIFFUSE REFLECTION is the reflection of light from a surface such that an incident ray is reflected at many angles rather than at just one angle as in the case of specular reflection . An illuminated ideal diffuse reflecting surface will have equal luminance from all directions which lie in the half-space adjacent to the surface ( Lambertian reflectance ). A surface built from a non-absorbing powder such as plaster , or from fibers such as paper, or from a polycrystalline material such as white marble , reflects light diffusely with great efficiency. Many common materials exhibit a mixture of specular and diffuse reflection. The visibility of objects, excluding light-emitting ones, is primarily caused by diffuse reflection of light: it is diffusely-scattered light that forms the image of the object in the observer's eye. CONTENTS* 1 Mechanism * 1.1 Specular vs
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Conrad Gessner
CONRAD GESSNER (also Konrad Gesner, Conrad Geßner, Conrad von Gesner, Conradus Gesnerus, Conrad Gesner; 26 March 1516 – 13 December 1565) was a Swiss naturalist and bibliographer. He was well known as a botanist, physician and classical linguist. His five-volume Historia animalium (1551–1558) is considered the beginning of modern zoology , and the flowering plant genus Gesneria and its family Gesneriaceae
Gesneriaceae
are named after him. A genus of moths is also named Gesneria after him. He is denoted by the author abbreviation GESNER when citing a botanical name
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USNO
The UNITED STATES NAVAL OBSERVATORY (USNO) is one of the oldest scientific agencies in the United States
United States
, with a primary mission to produce Positioning, Navigation
Navigation
and Timing (PNT) for the United States Navy and the United States
United States
Department of Defense . Located in Northwest Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
at the Northwestern end of Embassy Row , it is one of the pre-1900 astronomical observatories located in an urban area; at the time of its construction, it was far from the light pollution thrown off by the (then-smaller) city center. The USNO operates the "Master Clock ", which provides precise time to the GPS satellite constellation run by the United States
United States
Air Force
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Lunar Swirls
LUNAR SWIRLS are enigmatic features found across the Moon
Moon
’s surface, which are characterized by having a high albedo , appearing optically immature (i.e. having the optical characteristics of a relatively young regolith ), and (often) having a sinuous shape. Their curvilinear shape is often accentuated by low albedo regions that wind between the bright swirls. They appear to overlay the lunar surface, superposed on top of craters and ejecta deposits, but impart no observable topography. Swirls have been identified on the lunar maria and highlands - they are not associated with a specific lithologic composition. Swirls on the maria are characterized by strong albedo contrasts and complex, sinuous morphology, whereas those on highland terrain appear less prominent and exhibit simpler shapes, such as single loops or diffuse bright spots
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Sodium Tail Of The Moon
The Moon
Moon
has been shown to have a "TAIL" OF SODIUM ATOMS too faint to be detected by the human eye . It is hundreds of thousands of kilometers long, and was discovered in 1998 as a result of scientists from Boston University
Boston University
observing the Leonid meteor shower . The Moon is constantly releasing atomic sodium as a fine dust from its surface due to photon-stimulated desorption , solar wind sputtering and impacts from meteoroids. S olar radiation pressure accelerates the sodium atoms in the anti-sunward direction, forming an elongated tail that points away from the Sun. The 1998 Leonid meteor shower temporarily tripled the mass of the tail by adding to the population of sodium atoms being outgassed by the Moon. The daily impact of small meteoroids produces a constant "tail" on the Moon, but the Leonids had intensified it, thus making it more observable from Earth
Earth
than usual
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