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Louise Brown
LOUISE JOY BROWN (born 25 July 1978) is an English woman known for being the first human to have been born after conception by in vitro fertilisation , or IVF. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Ethical and religious issues * 3 References * 4 External links BIOGRAPHYLouise Joy Brown was born at Oldham General Hospital , Oldham
Oldham
, by planned Caesarean section
Caesarean section
delivered by registrar John Webster . She weighed 5 pounds, 12 ounces (2.608 kg) at birth. Her parents, Lesley and John Brown, had been trying to conceive for nine years. Lesley faced complications of blocked fallopian tubes . On 10 November 1977, Lesley Brown underwent a procedure, later to become known as IVF (in vitro fertilisation), developed by Patrick Steptoe and Robert Edwards . Edwards was awarded the 2010 Nobel Prize in Medicine for this work
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Informed Consent
INFORMED CONSENT is a process for getting permission before conducting a healthcare intervention on a person. A health care provider may ask a patient to consent to receive therapy before providing it, or a clinical researcher may ask a research participant before enrolling that person into a clinical trial . Informed consent is collected according to guidelines from the fields of medical ethics and research ethics . An informed consent can be said to have been given based upon a clear appreciation and understanding of the facts, implications, and consequences of an action. Adequate informed consent is rooted in respecting a person’s dignity. To give informed consent, the individual concerned must have adequate reasoning faculties and be in possession of all relevant facts
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Gallbladder
In vertebrates the GALLBLADDER (also GALL BLADDER, BILIARY VESICLE or CHOLECYST) is a small organ where bile (a fluid produced by the liver ) is stored and concentrated before it is released into the small intestine . Humans can live without a gallbladder. The surgical removal of the gallbladder is called a cholecystectomy . CONTENTS* 1 Structure * 1.1 Histology * 1.2 Development * 1.3 Variation * 2 Function * 3 Clinical significance * 3.1 Gallstones * 3.2 Inflammation
Inflammation
* 3.3 Cholesterolosis * 3.4 Gallbladder
Gallbladder
polyps * 3.5 Gallbladder
Gallbladder
removal * 3.6 Imaging * 4 Society and culture * 5 Other animals * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links STRUCTURE Parts of the gallbladder and connection to the bile ducts The gallbladder is a hollow organ that sits just beneath the right lobe of the liver
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Bristol Royal Infirmary
The BRISTOL ROYAL INFIRMARY, also known as the BRI, is a large teaching hospital situated in the centre of Bristol
Bristol
, England
England
. It has links with the nearby University
University
of Bristol
Bristol
and the Faculty of Health and Social Care at the University
University
of the West of England
England
, also in Bristol. It is currently undergoing a major redevelopment. The BRI is one of eight hospitals within the University
University
Hospitals Bristol
Bristol
NHS Foundation Trust . It is located next to the Bristol
Bristol
Royal Hospital for Children
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Petri Dish
A PETRI DISH (sometimes spelled "PETRIE DISH" and alternatively known as a PETRI PLATE or CELL-CULTURE DISH), named after the German bacteriologist Julius Richard Petri , is a shallow cylindrical glass or plastic lidded dish that biologists use to culture cells – such as bacteria – or small mosses . Modern Petri dishes usually feature rings and/or slots on their lids and bases so that when stacked, they are less prone to sliding off one another. Multiple dishes can also be incorporated into one plastic container to create a "multi-well plate". While glass Petri dishes may be reused after sterilization (via an autoclave or one hour's dry-heating in a hot-air oven at 160 °C, for example), plastic Petri dishes are often disposed of after experiments where cultures might contaminate each other
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Pope Paul VI
POPE PAUL VI (Latin : Paulus VI; Italian : Paolo VI), born GIOVANNI BATTISTA ENRICO ANTONIO MARIA MONTINI (Italian pronunciation: ; 26 September 1897 – 6 August 1978), reigned from 21 June 1963 to his death in 1978. Succeeding John XXIII , he continued the Second Vatican Council which he closed in 1965, implementing its numerous reforms, and fostered improved ecumenical relations with Eastern Orthodox and Protestants , which resulted in many historic meetings and agreements. Montini served in the Holy See\'s Secretariat of State from 1922 to 1954. While in the Secretariat of State , Montini and Domenico Tardini were considered as the closest and most influential advisors of Pope Pius XII
Pius XII
, who in 1954 named him Archbishop of Milan , the largest Italian diocese. Montini later became the Secretary of the Italian Bishops' Conference
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Agence France-Presse
AGENCE FRANCE-PRESSE (AFP) is an international news agency headquartered in Paris
Paris
, France. Founded in 1835, AFP is the third largest news agency in the world, after the Associated Press
Associated Press
(AP) and Reuters
Reuters
. Journalists of the French Resistance
French Resistance
established the AFP in the headquarters of the former "Office Français d\'Information", a Vichy news agency, following the liberation of Paris
Paris
. Currently, the CEO is Emmanuel Hoog (fr) and the News Director is Michèle Léridon. AFP has regional offices in Nicosia
Nicosia
, Montevideo
Montevideo
, Hong Kong
Hong Kong
, and Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
, and bureaux in 150 countries. AFP transmits news in French , English , Arabic , Portuguese , Spanish , and German
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Institute For Advanced Technology In The Humanities
Coordinates : 37°32′12.2″N 78°30′20″W / 37.536722°N 78.50556°W / 37.536722; -78.50556 THIS ARTICLE HAS MULTIPLE ISSUES. Please help IMPROVE IT or discuss these issues on the TALK PAGE . (Learn how and when to remove these template messages ) This article NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message ) The topic of this article MAY NOT MEET\'S NOTABILITY GUIDELINES FOR COMPANIES AND ORGANIZATIONS . Please help to establish notability by citing reliable secondary sources that are independent of the topic and provide significant coverage of it beyond its mere trivial mention
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Library Of Congress Control Number
The LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CONTROL NUMBER (LCCN) is a serially based system of numbering cataloging records in the Library of Congress
Library of Congress
in the United States. It has nothing to do with the contents of any book, and should not be confused with Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Classification . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Format * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYThe LCCN numbering system has been in use since 1898, at which time the acronym LCCN originally stood for Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Card Number. It has also been called the Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Catalog Card Number, among other names. The Library of Congress
Library of Congress
prepared cards of bibliographic information for their library catalog and would sell duplicate sets of the cards to other libraries for use in their catalogs
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Human Fertilisation
HUMAN FERTILIZATION is the union of a human egg and sperm , usually occurring in the ampulla of the fallopian tube . The result of this union is the production of a zygote cell, or fertilized egg, initiating prenatal development . Scientists discovered the dynamics of human fertilization in the nineteenth century. The process of fertilization involves a sperm fusing with an ovum. The most common sequence begins with ejaculation during copulation , follows with ovulation , and finishes with fertilization. Various exceptions to this sequence are possible, including artificial insemination , in vitro fertilization , external ejaculation without copulation, or copulation shortly after ovulation. Upon encountering the secondary oocyte, the acrosome of the sperm produces enzymes which allow it to burrow through the outer jelly coat of the egg
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Nobel Prize
The NOBEL PRIZE (/ˈnoʊbɛl/ , Swedish pronunciation: ; Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Norwegian : Nobelprisen) is a set of annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances. The will of the Swedish scientist Alfred Nobel established the prizes in 1895. The prizes in Chemistry
Chemistry
, Literature , Peace
Peace
, Physics
Physics
and Physiology
Physiology
or Medicine
Medicine
were first awarded in 1901. Medals made before 1980 were struck in 23 carat gold, and later in 18 carat green gold plated with a 24 carat gold coating. Between 1901 and 2016, the Nobel Prizes and the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences were awarded 579 times to 911 people and organisations
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Specialty Registrar
A SPECIALTY REGISTRAR (STR) is a doctor or dentist who is working as part of a specialty training programme in the UK . This is known as a training grade as these doctors are supervised to an extent, as part of a structured training experience that leads to being able to undertake independent practice in a hospital specialty or working as a general practitioner. This training grade was introduced into UK postgraduate medical training in 2007 as part of the Modernising Medical Careers programme with the specialty registrar training places being created instead of the Senior House Officer (SHO) and Specialist registrar (SpR) posts. CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links BACKGROUNDIn the UK medical system, a specialist is someone who has the necessary experience and qualifications to be placed on the GMC 's Specialist Register
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Caesarean Section
CAESAREAN SECTION, also known as C-SECTION or CAESAREAN DELIVERY, is the use of surgery to deliver one or more babies . A caesarean section is often performed when a vaginal delivery would put the baby or mother at risk. This may include obstructed labour , twin pregnancy , high blood pressure in the mother, breech birth , problems with the placenta or umbilical cord . A caesarean delivery may be performed based upon the shape of the mother's pelvis or history of a previous C-section. A trial of vaginal birth in some of these situations, including after C-section , may be possible. Some C-sections are also performed upon request . The World Health Organization recommends that they should be done based on medical need and in many cases they are lifesaving for the mother and baby. A C-section typically takes 45 minutes to an hour. It may be done with a spinal block such that the woman is awake or under general anesthesia
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Homo Sapiens
H. s. sapiens †H. s. idaltu †H. s. neanderthalensis (?) †H. s. rhodesiensis (?) (others proposed ) HOMO SAPIENS is the systematic name used in taxonomy (also known as binomial nomenclature ) for anatomically modern humans , i.e. the only extant human species. The name is Latin
Latin
for "wise man" and was introduced in 1758 by Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
(who is himself also the type specimen ). Extinct species of the genus Homo
Homo
are classified as "archaic humans ". This includes at least the separate species Homo
Homo
erectus , and possibly a number of other species (which are variously also considered subspecies of either H. sapiens or H. erectus. H. sapiens idaltu (2003) is a proposed extinct subspecies of H. sapiens. The age of speciation of H. sapiens out of ancestral H
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England
ENGLAND is a country that is part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
. It shares land borders with Scotland
Scotland
to the north and Wales
Wales
to the west. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England
England
and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England
England
is separated from continental Europe
Europe
by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel
English Channel
to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain
Great Britain
(which lies in the North Atlantic ) in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller named islands such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight
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