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Louis Armstrong
Louis Daniel Armstrong (August 4, 1901 – July 6, 1971), nicknamed Satchmo,[2] Satch, and Pops,[3] was an American trumpeter, composer, singer and occasional actor who was one of the most influential figures in jazz. His career spanned five decades, from the 1920s to the 1960s, and different eras in the history of jazz.[4] In 2017, he was inducted into the Rhythm & Blues Hall of Fame. Armstrong was born and raised in New Orleans. Coming to prominence in the 1920s as an "inventive" trumpet and cornet player, Armstrong was a foundational influence in jazz, shifting the focus of the music from collective improvisation to solo performance.[5] Around 1922, he followed his mentor, Joe "King" Oliver, to Chicago to play in the Creole Jazz
Jazz
Band. In the Windy City, he networked with other jazz musicians, reconnecting with his friend, Bix Biederbecke, and made new contacts, which included Hoagy Carmichael
Hoagy Carmichael
and Lil Hardin
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Little Rock Nine
NAACP
NAACP
memberDaisy Bates Little Rock
Little Rock
NineMelba Pattillo Beals Minnijean Brown Elizabeth Eckford Ernest Green Gloria Ray Karlmark Carlotta Walls LaNier Thelma Mothershed Terrence Roberts Jefferson ThomasState of ArkansasOrval Faubus, governorThis article is part of a series about Dwight D
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Racism In The United States
Racism in the United States has been widespread since the colonial era. Legally or socially sanctioned privileges and rights were given to white Americans but denied to Native Americans, African Americans, Asian Americans, and Hispanic and Latino Americans. European Americans (particularly the affluent white Anglo-Saxon Protestants) were granted exclusive privileges in matters of education, immigration, voting rights, citizenship, land acquisition, and criminal procedure over periods of time extending from the 17th century to the 1960s. However, non-Protestant immigrants from Europe; particularly Irish people, Poles, and Italians, suffered xenophobic exclusion and other forms of ethnicity-based discrimination in American society, were vilified as racially inferior and were not considered fully white
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Desegregation
Desegregation
Desegregation
is the process of ending the separation of two groups usually referring to races. This is most commonly used in reference to the United States. Desegregation
Desegregation
was long a focus of the Civil Rights Movement, both before and after the United States Supreme Court's decision in Brown v. Board of Education, particularly desegregation of the school systems and the military (see Military history of African Americans). Racial integration
Racial integration
of society was a closely related goal.Contents1 In the U.S. military1.1 Early history 1.2 World Wars I and II 1.3 Modern history2 In U.S. housing law 3 In the U.S. education system3.1 Asian Americans4 See also 5 References 6 External linksIn the U.S. military[edit] Early history[edit] Starting with King Philip's in the 17th century, blacks served alongside whites in an integrated environment North American
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Etching
Etching
Etching
is traditionally the process of using strong acid or mordant to cut into the unprotected parts of a metal surface to create a design in intaglio (incised) in the metal.[1] In modern manufacturing, other chemicals may be used on other types of material. As a method of printmaking, it is, along with engraving, the most important technique for old master prints, and remains in wide use today. In a number of modern variants such as microfabrication etching and photochemical milling it is a crucial technique in much modern technology, including circuit boards. In traditional pure etching, a metal (usually copper, zinc or steel) plate is covered with a waxy ground which is resistant to acid.[2] The artist then scratches off the ground with a pointed etching needle[3] where he or she wants a line to appear in the finished piece, so exposing the bare metal
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Baptism
Baptism
Baptism
(from the Greek noun βάπτισμα baptisma; see below) is a Christian
Christian
sacrament of admission and adoption,[1] almost invariably with the use of water, into the Christian Church
Christian Church
generally.[2][3] The canonical Gospels report that Jesus
Jesus
was baptized[4]—a historical event to which a high degree of certainty can be assigned.[5][6][7] Baptism
Baptism
has been called a holy sacrament and an ordinance of Jesus Christ
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Boutte, Louisiana
Boutte is a census-designated place (CDP) in St. Charles Parish, Louisiana, United States. The population was 3,075 at the 2010 census.Contents1 Geography 2 Demographics 3 Education 4 Notable people 5 ReferencesGeography[edit] Boutte is located at 29°54′4″N 90°23′11″W / 29.90111°N 90.38639°W / 29.90111; -90.38639 (29.901060, -90.386434).[2] According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 3.8 square miles (9.8 km2), of which 3.7 square miles (9.6 km2) is land and 0.04 square miles (0.10 km2) (0.80%) is water. Demographics[edit] As of the census[1] of 2000, there were 2,181 people, 740 households, and 560 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 582.6 people per square mile (225.2/km²). There were 810 housing units at an average density of 216.4 per square mile (83.6/km²)
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Spasm Band
A spasm band is a musical group that plays a variety of Dixieland, trad jazz, jug band, or skiffle music. The first spasm bands were formed on the streets of New Orleans in the late nineteenth century.[1] The term "spasm" applied to any band (often made up of children) who made musical instruments out of found objects not usually employed for such. The earliest band to play under the name "spasm band" in New Orleans was formed in 1895, known informally as "Stale Bread's Spasm Band" and billed as the "Razzy Dazzy Spasm Band" at semi-professional engagements, such as outside the West End Opera House.[2] They played, amongst other things, a length of gas pipe, a kettle and a fiddle made from a cigar box. The spasm band style was one ingredient in the development of instrumental New Orleans jazz
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Jam Session
A jam session is a relatively informal musical event, process, or activity where musicians, typically instrumentalists, play improvised solos and vamp on tunes, songs and chord progressions. To "jam" is to improvise music without extensive preparation or predefined arrangements, except for when the group is playing well-known jazz standards or covers of existing popular songs. Original jam sessions, also 'free flow sessions', are often used by musicians to develop new material (music) and find suitable arrangements. Both styles can be used simply as a social gathering and communal practice session. Jam sessions may be based upon existing songs or forms, may be loosely based on an agreed chord progression or chart suggested by one participant, or may be wholly improvisational
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Star Of David
The Star of David
Star of David
(✡), known in Hebrew
Hebrew
as the Shield of David or Magen David ( Hebrew
Hebrew
מָגֵן דָּוִד; Biblical Hebrew
Hebrew
Māḡēn Dāwīḏ [maːˈɣeːn daːˈwiːð], Tiberian [mɔˈɣen dɔˈvið], Modern Hebrew
Hebrew
[maˈɡen daˈvid], Ashkenazi Hebrew
Hebrew
and Yiddish
Yiddish
Mogein Dovid [ˈmɔɡeɪn ˈdɔvid] or Mogen Dovid), is a generally recognized symbol of modern Jewish identity
Jewish identity
and Judaism.[1][page needed][full citation needed] Its shape is that of a hexagram, the compound of two equilateral triangles
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African-American
Origins of the civil rights movement
Origins of the civil rights movement
· Civil rights movement
Civil rights movement
· Black Power movementPost–civil rights era New Great MigrationCultureStudies Art Business history Black conductors Black mecca Black sc
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Honky Tonk
A honky-tonk (also called honkatonk, honkey-tonk, or tonk) is both a bar that provides country music for the entertainment of its patrons and the style of music played in such establishments. Bars of this kind are common in the South and Southwest United States. Many eminent country music artists, such as Jimmie Rodgers, Loretta Lynn, Patsy Cline, Ernest Tubb, and Merle Haggard, began their careers as amateur musicians in honky-tonks
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Quadrille
The quadrille is a dance that was fashionable in late 18th- and 19th-century Europe and its colonies. Performed by four couples in a rectangular formation, it is related to American square dancing. The Lancers, a variant of the quadrille, became popular in the late 19th century and was still danced in the 20th century in folk-dance clubs. A derivative found in the Francophone Lesser Antilles
Lesser Antilles
is known as kwadril, and the dance is also still found in Madagascar
Madagascar
and is within old Jamaican / Caribbean culture. The quadrille consists of a chain of four to six contredanses, courtly versions of English country dances that had been taken up at the court of Louis XIV
Louis XIV
and spread across Europe
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Blank (cartridge)
A blank is a type of cartridge for a firearm that contains gunpowder but no bullet or shot. Blanks use paper or plastic wadding to seal gunpowder into the cartridge. When fired, the blank makes a flash and an explosive sound (report), the wadding is propelled from the barrel of the gun, and the firearm's action cycles. Blanks are often used for simulation (such as in historical reenactments, theatre and movie special effects), training, for signaling (see starting pistol), and cowboy mounted shooting
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Riverboat
A riverboat is a watercraft designed for inland navigation on lakes, rivers, and artificial waterways. They are generally equipped and outfitted as work boats in one of the carrying trades, for freight or people transport, including luxury units constructed for entertainment enterprises, such as lake or harbour tour boats
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